If there were multiple experiments, then each experiment may require a separate Results section. What is the significance of your results? Limitations and directions for future research are also commonly addressed. List of articles and any books cited — an alphabetized list of the sources that are cited in the paper by last name of the first author of each source. Each reference should follow specific APA guidelines regarding author names, dates, article titles, journal titles, journal volume numbers, page numbers, book publishers, publisher locations, websites, and so on for more information, please see the Citing References in APA Style page of this website.
Tables are included first, followed by Figures. However, for some journals and undergraduate research papers such as the B. Supplementary information optional — in some cases, additional information that is not critical to understanding the research paper, such as a list of experiment stimuli, details of a secondary analysis, or programming code, is provided.
This is often placed in an Appendix. Although the major sections described above are common to most research papers written in APA style, there are variations on that pattern. These variations include:. In some cases, official APA style might not be followed however, be sure to check with your editor, instructor, or other sources before deviating from standards of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Such deviations may include:. Toggle navigation. Research Paper Structure Whether you are writing a B. From picking a good topic to finding high-quality sources to cite , each step in the process comes with its own challenges. Formatting your paper in APA style can also be challenging, especially if you have never used the format before. Luckily, there are strategies you can use to make writing a psychology paper using APA format easier—one of which is creating an outline.
It can be used to style papers written for university courses as well as in professional psychology publications. Formatting dictates how papers are styled, which includes organizational structure, page layout, and how information is presented. Learning the basics of APA format is necessary to write effective psychology papers and reports. However, psychology is not the only field of study that relies on APA format. Other social science disciplines such as education, nursing, economics, and sociology also use APA format.
A strong paper starts with a solid outline. Creating an outline is the first step you should take as you begin to research, organize, and write your paper. Unless your instructor specifically requires outlines, you usually will not need to turn yours in with your final paper, but that doesn't mean you should skip the step.
Developing an outline can help you organize your writing and ensures that you effectively communicate your paper's main points and arguments. There is no specific APA format for creating an outline, which means the final form that your outline takes will depend on what your instructor requires as well as your personal preferences.
While the official APA publication manual does not provide specific guidance for outline preparation, it does specify general rules to keep in mind as you are writing. For example, according to APA style, papers need to be written in a widely available font. Traditionally, Times New Roman in point font is used, but other legible serif and sans serif fonts like Arial or Georgia in point fonts are also acceptable.
Each page should have 1-inch margins on all sides top, bottom, left, and right , and you need to include a page number in the upper right corner of each page. Your outline will include three key sections: an introduction, the main body, and a conclusion. In addition to following the basic rules for APA format writing , there are also specific guidelines for using headings and subheadings you will want to follow as you create your outline. If you need additional subheadings within the initial capitalized letter subheadings, start with Arabic numerals 1, 2, 3 , then lower case letters a, b, c , then Arabic numerals inside parentheses [ 1 , 2 , 3 ].
Before you start thinking about different methods of organization, review what your instructor has provided for guidance. They may have specific requirements for what to include in your outline, as well as how it needs to be structured and formatted. Some instructors require outlines to use decimal format. This structure uses Arabic decimals instead of Roman numerals or letters. After you have reviewed your instructor's requirements, you can consider your own preferences for organizing your outline.
For example, you could choose to format your headings and subheadings as full sentences or use shorter headings that summarize the content. You can also use different approaches to organizing the lettering and numbering in your outline's subheadings. Whether you are creating your outline according to your instructor's guidelines or following your own organizational preferences, the most important thing is that you are consistent. Your outline should begin on a new page. Before you start writing, check that your word processor does not automatically insert unwanted text or notations such as letters, numbers, or bullet points as you type.
If it does, you should have the option of turning off auto-formatting. Your instructor may require you to specify your thesis statement in your outline. For example, it may be presented at the top of your outline or included as a subheading. Be sure to review your assignment instructions to find out where your thesis should be placed. If you are required to turn in your outline before you begin working on your paper, keep in mind that you may also need to include a list of references that you plan to use.
Here is a step-by-step example of how to outline a paper using APA format. The topic you choose should be one that you can build and develop a compelling paper around. Start by developing a strong thesis for your paper that is based on the topic you've chosen, then begin to research the topic. Here are some key points to keep in mind as you are researching:. Here's what step one would look like formatting according to APA style:. Choose a good topic for your paper. Develop a strong thesis.
Begin with an introduction that summarizes your topic, provides some background information, and presents your main thesis. Next, write the main body of your paper based on your working outline. As you write, there are a few important points to keep in mind:. Write an introduction that summarizes your topic, gives some background information, and presents your main thesis. In your conclusion, briefly summarize the main points of your paper and present possible avenues or topics for future research that might be needed.
Here's what the third step would look like formatted with APA style:. Write your conclusion.
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|Psychology research paper outline format||Was the independent variable teen driving essay, and if so, was it manipulated between or within subjects? Updated March 30, Although the major sections described above are common to most research papers written in APA style, there are variations on that pattern. The broader your topic is, the more difficult it is to discuss the full details. Part of a research report which contains supplemental material. All studies have limitations, and most readers will understand that a different sample or different measures might have produced different results. Rebecca Berry.|
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Your title page should include the following:. You should type your title in upper and lowercase letters and it should be placed at the center at the top of the page. Your tile should be in bold and should not have any abbreviations. It should be three or four lines below the top margin of the page. The abstract page includes:. The main part of your research paper includes:.
Reference and Citations. Your references and citations should include:. Your APA paper should follow the following rules: 12 point font with one-inch margins. It should be double-spaced. Your thesis should always be underlined. Your topic sentences should be underlined. A single source should not be used more than five times. Your name. It should appear two lines below the title and should appear in the following order: first name, middle initial and last name.
Institutional affiliation. Author note. Course number and name. Assignment due date. The abstract page includes: Page header. The title abstract should be written at the centre of the page. It should not be bold, underlined or in italics.
A brief summary of your research topic, research questions, methods, analysis, participants, results and conclusions. The summary should not be indented. A single, double, spaced paragraph. Selecting the best research database for your topic is an important step. You need to choose a database that covers your topic, type of publication, as well as the dates you need. You can view and search all our databases from this page.
Here is a video that illustrates how to search a database. Narrow your topic Facebook topics. Narrow your topic Food to Table topics. A good researcher should know how to do a Boolean Search. In addition to the above Boolean illustration, the videos below are also helpful. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older.
This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Rebecca Berry. Research Process Research is a process of investigation. Typical Steps in the Research Process Select a topic and formulate a research question Get background information Refine your search topic Formulate a thesis statement Consider your resource options Select the appropriate resources Use the resource Locate your materials Analyze your materials Organize and write Compose your bibliography.
Searching Databases Many students today are successful using computers to search the Internet. Most databases give abstracts, or summaries, for each article. Many databases have full text of periodical articles.