why australia became a federation essay

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Why australia became a federation essay technical job cover letter template

Why australia became a federation essay

Women had only won the right to vote in South Australia in Australia was the first nation to take a proposed constitution to the people for approval. Switzerland had held a referendum to approve changes to its constitution in Enthusiastic campaigns were waged urging people to vote 'yes' or 'no'. Anti-federation groups argued federation would weaken the colonial parliaments and interstate free trade would lead to lower wages and a loss of jobs.

New South Wales Premier George Reid publicly criticised the proposed constitution but said he would vote for it in the referendum, earning him the nickname 'Yes-No Reid'. The referendum was passed in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. Although a majority of voters in New South Wales voted 'yes' in the referendum, it did not attract the 80 'yes' votes set by the New South Wales colonial parliament as the minimum needed for it to agree to federation.

Queensland and Western Australia—concerned federation would give New South Wales and Victoria an advantage over the less-powerful states—did not hold referendums. In January the colonial premiers met privately to work out a way to bring about federation. Western Australian Premier John Forrest did not attend.

In order to win the support of the New South Wales and Queensland colonial parliaments, the premiers made some further changes to the draft constitution. Among these was the decision to establish the Australian national capital within New South Wales at least miles They also agreed the federal Parliament would only be required to return customs and excise tariffs to the states for the first 10 years of federation.

People line up outside a polling station on referendum day, Brisbane, A black and white photograph of a group of men, women and children and a dog gathered around the entrance of a low building. A sign reads 'Polling Booth Brisbane North'. All 4 colonies agreed to the proposed constitution. Western Australia still refused to take part. In September, Queenslanders agreed to the constitution by a narrow margin—just over 54 per cent of Queenslanders voted 'yes'. Queensland had waited to see whether New South Wales would federate before it held its referendum.

Australia is born: The Australian nation is a fact … Now is accomplished the dream of a continent for a people and a people for a continent. No longer shall there exist those artificial barriers which have divided brother from brother. We are one people — with one destiny. The constitution had to be agreed to by the British Parliament before federation could proceed.

In March a delegation—which included an observer from Western Australia and a representative from each of the other 5 colonies—travelled to London to present the constitution to the British Parliament. Queen Victoria signed the Act on 9 July Three weeks after the Australian Constitution became law in Britain, a referendum was finally held in Western Australia. Once it realised the other colonies would go ahead without it, the Western Australian colonial parliament reversed its opposition to federation.

Public opinion in Western Australia had also shifted. By there was widespread support for federation, particularly among the large number of new settlers from the eastern Australian colonies who had moved to Western Australia as a result of the gold rush. An overwhelming majority of voters agreed to federate, with double the number of 'yes' votes than 'no' votes. A sepia toned photograph looking into a rotunda. A group of men under the dome are gathered around a table. Women with large hats stand outside the rotunda watching the events taking place inside.

Decorations hang from the dome. During the ceremony, the first Governor-General, Lord Hopetoun, was sworn-in and Australia's first Prime Minister, Edmund Barton, and federal ministers took the oath of office. Many Australians welcomed nationhood. Up to people lined the route of the federation parade as it travelled from the Domain to Centennial Park and about spectators witnessed the ceremony.

Across Australia people celebrated with parades, processions, school pageants, firework displays, sporting events, 'conversaziones'—discussion evenings—and special dinners. Elaborate federation arches decorated main streets and buildings were lit up at night. In Sydney the celebrations continued for a week.

This colour engraving shows the official opening of the of the first federal Parliament. The Duke of Cornwall and York, dressed in full military uniform, reads from a book. He and other dignitaries stand on a platform looking down on a great crowd. Judges, military personel, accademics, women and lawyers can be seen in the crowd. Flags are drapped from the mezzanine level of the Exhibition Building. The first federal elections for the new Australian Parliament were held on 29 and 30 March Eighty-seven of the newly elected parliamentarians had been members of colonial parliaments, including 14 who had been colonial premiers.

Several had also participated in the drafting of the Constitution and were active in the push for federation—10 had been at the National Australasian Convention and 25 attended the second National Australasian Convention. The lavish ceremony took place in the Exhibition Building, Melbourne, and was attended by over 12 guests.

It is His Majesty's [King Edward VII] earnest prayer that this union so happily achieved may, under God's blessing, prove an instrument for still further promoting the welfare and advancement of his subjects in Australia and for the strengthening and consolidation of his Empire. Members of parliament were sworn-in by the Governor-General and then travelled by foot and horse-drawn carriage to Victoria's Parliament House.

The Senate then met at 1. The Victorian Parliament House remained the temporary home of federal Parliament until , when a new Parliament House was opened in Canberra. During this time, the Victorian Parliament met in the Exhibition Building.

In Melbourne the opening of Parliament was marked by 2 weeks of celebrations. The enthusiasm with which Australians greeted federation and the first federal Parliament demonstrated the nation was eager to unite as 'one people'. While a majority of voters in each colony voted 'yes', the referendum in New South Wales did not attract the 80 votes set by the New South Wales colonial parliament as the minimum needed for it to agree to federation. Queensland and Western Australia did not hold referendums.

History of Parliament Federation History milestones. The federation of Australia Australia's federation came about through a process of deliberation, consultation and debate. Photo: Dragi Markovic. Photo: Dragi Markovic Description In the cente of a ring of kangaroos stands a lion wearing a green jacket and carrying a cricket bat. Copyright information You may save or print this image for research and study. National Library of Australia, vn Lord Hopetoun being sworn in as the Australian Governor-General.

Harold Bradley, National Library of Australia, an Harold Bradley, National Library of Australia, an Description A sepia toned photograph looking into a rotunda. State Library of Victoria. State Library of Victoria Description This colour engraving shows the official opening of the of the first federal Parliament. Want to know more? Australia's federation Parliamentary Education Office.

Federation Parliamentary Education Office. First prime minister of Australia. Largely credited with writing the first draft of the Australian Constitution. Premier of New South Wales. Gave the Tenterfield Oration that called for a united Australia and helped spark public support for federation. Premier of New South Wales during the federation referendums. Was the only woman to stand for election to the second National Australasian Convention.

Promoted a form of proportional representation, very similar to the system currently used to elect representatives to the Senate. The Australasian Federation Conference recommends a national convention be held to draft a constitution for a Commonwealth of Australia. The first National Australasian Convention is held in Sydney and drafts a constitution. A people's conference in Corowa, New South Wales, urges the colonial parliaments to hold a new convention to decide on a draft constitution.

A second people's conference in Bathurst, New South Wales, renews calls for another federation convention. It is agreed to by all but New South Wales. In January a secret premiers ' meeting agrees to several changes to the constitution. In September Queensland voters agree to the constitution. In March a delegation travels to London to present the constitution to the British Parliament.

On 31 July Western Australia holds a referendum at which an overwhelming majority of voters approve the Constitution. The Victorian era, as it became known, was the time of Queen Victoria's reign. Federation unified Australia as a country. Australia was still very British based at the time of federation, so royal support from Britain, encouraged federation to occur. This is why her death was taken particularly bad in Australia, and all Australians felt it personally.

Both the decline of the British Empire and federation, distanced Britain from Australia and it became a less British based society. As a large amount of white settlers moved into Australia they began to occupy the fertile land. Federation and Aboriginal Voting Rights Federation, which is often seen as a milestone in the development of Australian democracy, represented a backward step for Aboriginal Australians.

As introduced, it would have conferred the right to vote on indigenous Australians. In extreme incidents these children became the source of cheap labour for pastoralists. The public eventually became aware of these massacres and outrage became widespread.

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They decided disagreements could be resolved by dissolving—closing—both houses of Parliament and calling an election. The newly elected Parliament could then vote on the issue. If this failed to break the deadlock, it could be put to a vote in a joint sitting of both houses. The convention also agreed to a proposal by Tasmanian Premier Sir Edward Braddon to return to the states three-quarters of the customs and excise tariffs collected by the federal government.

On 16 March the convention agreed to the draft constitution. After being agreed by the colonial parliaments, the people of each of the 6 colonies were then asked to approve the constitution in referendums. Many people around Australia were involved in federation movement. Federal leagues, clubs and societies were formed from the s to advocate for federation.

Press reports of the conventions were eagerly read and helped build popular support for federation. Many women were involved in the federation movement. Women began their own Federal Leagues, in part to try and win the right to vote in the new nation.

Women had only won the right to vote in South Australia in Australia was the first nation to take a proposed constitution to the people for approval. Switzerland had held a referendum to approve changes to its constitution in Enthusiastic campaigns were waged urging people to vote 'yes' or 'no'. Anti-federation groups argued federation would weaken the colonial parliaments and interstate free trade would lead to lower wages and a loss of jobs.

New South Wales Premier George Reid publicly criticised the proposed constitution but said he would vote for it in the referendum, earning him the nickname 'Yes-No Reid'. The referendum was passed in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. Although a majority of voters in New South Wales voted 'yes' in the referendum, it did not attract the 80 'yes' votes set by the New South Wales colonial parliament as the minimum needed for it to agree to federation.

Queensland and Western Australia—concerned federation would give New South Wales and Victoria an advantage over the less-powerful states—did not hold referendums. In January the colonial premiers met privately to work out a way to bring about federation. Western Australian Premier John Forrest did not attend.

In order to win the support of the New South Wales and Queensland colonial parliaments, the premiers made some further changes to the draft constitution. Among these was the decision to establish the Australian national capital within New South Wales at least miles They also agreed the federal Parliament would only be required to return customs and excise tariffs to the states for the first 10 years of federation.

People line up outside a polling station on referendum day, Brisbane, A black and white photograph of a group of men, women and children and a dog gathered around the entrance of a low building. A sign reads 'Polling Booth Brisbane North'. All 4 colonies agreed to the proposed constitution. Western Australia still refused to take part. In September, Queenslanders agreed to the constitution by a narrow margin—just over 54 per cent of Queenslanders voted 'yes'.

Queensland had waited to see whether New South Wales would federate before it held its referendum. Australia is born: The Australian nation is a fact … Now is accomplished the dream of a continent for a people and a people for a continent. No longer shall there exist those artificial barriers which have divided brother from brother.

We are one people — with one destiny. The constitution had to be agreed to by the British Parliament before federation could proceed. In March a delegation—which included an observer from Western Australia and a representative from each of the other 5 colonies—travelled to London to present the constitution to the British Parliament. Queen Victoria signed the Act on 9 July Three weeks after the Australian Constitution became law in Britain, a referendum was finally held in Western Australia.

Once it realised the other colonies would go ahead without it, the Western Australian colonial parliament reversed its opposition to federation. Public opinion in Western Australia had also shifted. By there was widespread support for federation, particularly among the large number of new settlers from the eastern Australian colonies who had moved to Western Australia as a result of the gold rush.

An overwhelming majority of voters agreed to federate, with double the number of 'yes' votes than 'no' votes. A sepia toned photograph looking into a rotunda. A group of men under the dome are gathered around a table.

Women with large hats stand outside the rotunda watching the events taking place inside. Decorations hang from the dome. During the ceremony, the first Governor-General, Lord Hopetoun, was sworn-in and Australia's first Prime Minister, Edmund Barton, and federal ministers took the oath of office. Many Australians welcomed nationhood. Up to people lined the route of the federation parade as it travelled from the Domain to Centennial Park and about spectators witnessed the ceremony.

Across Australia people celebrated with parades, processions, school pageants, firework displays, sporting events, 'conversaziones'—discussion evenings—and special dinners. Elaborate federation arches decorated main streets and buildings were lit up at night. In Sydney the celebrations continued for a week. This colour engraving shows the official opening of the of the first federal Parliament. The Duke of Cornwall and York, dressed in full military uniform, reads from a book.

He and other dignitaries stand on a platform looking down on a great crowd. Judges, military personel, accademics, women and lawyers can be seen in the crowd. Flags are drapped from the mezzanine level of the Exhibition Building.

The first federal elections for the new Australian Parliament were held on 29 and 30 March Eighty-seven of the newly elected parliamentarians had been members of colonial parliaments, including 14 who had been colonial premiers. Several had also participated in the drafting of the Constitution and were active in the push for federation—10 had been at the National Australasian Convention and 25 attended the second National Australasian Convention.

The lavish ceremony took place in the Exhibition Building, Melbourne, and was attended by over 12 guests. It is His Majesty's [King Edward VII] earnest prayer that this union so happily achieved may, under God's blessing, prove an instrument for still further promoting the welfare and advancement of his subjects in Australia and for the strengthening and consolidation of his Empire. Members of parliament were sworn-in by the Governor-General and then travelled by foot and horse-drawn carriage to Victoria's Parliament House.

The Senate then met at 1. The Victorian Parliament House remained the temporary home of federal Parliament until , when a new Parliament House was opened in Canberra. During this time, the Victorian Parliament met in the Exhibition Building.

In Melbourne the opening of Parliament was marked by 2 weeks of celebrations. The enthusiasm with which Australians greeted federation and the first federal Parliament demonstrated the nation was eager to unite as 'one people'. While a majority of voters in each colony voted 'yes', the referendum in New South Wales did not attract the 80 votes set by the New South Wales colonial parliament as the minimum needed for it to agree to federation. Queensland and Western Australia did not hold referendums.

History of Parliament Federation History milestones. The federation of Australia Australia's federation came about through a process of deliberation, consultation and debate. Photo: Dragi Markovic. Photo: Dragi Markovic Description In the cente of a ring of kangaroos stands a lion wearing a green jacket and carrying a cricket bat.

Copyright information You may save or print this image for research and study. National Library of Australia, vn Lord Hopetoun being sworn in as the Australian Governor-General. Harold Bradley, National Library of Australia, an Harold Bradley, National Library of Australia, an Description A sepia toned photograph looking into a rotunda. State Library of Victoria. State Library of Victoria Description This colour engraving shows the official opening of the of the first federal Parliament.

Want to know more? Australia's federation Parliamentary Education Office. Federation Parliamentary Education Office. First prime minister of Australia. Largely credited with writing the first draft of the Australian Constitution.

Premier of New South Wales. Gave the Tenterfield Oration that called for a united Australia and helped spark public support for federation. Premier of New South Wales during the federation referendums. The site eventually chosen for the city became Canberra. Museum Victoria.

Specific areas of legislative power were given to the federal government, but not for the first 10 years or so. This meant that the states could retain revenues a while longer, including taxation, defence, foreign affairs, migration, naturalisation and aliens, and postal and telecommunications services.

It did not have powers to make special laws for Indigenous people, a situation not rectified until a referendum in States retained power over matters within their borders that were outside the power of the Commonwealth, including police, hospitals, education and public transport.

Federation was a remarkable political achievement. Colonies had jostled to protect their interests. New South Wales had competed with Victoria for influence, and the smaller colonies had feared their interests would be ignored by the larger colonies. But consensus had been reached.

The British monarch remained the head of state, but Australia was now largely self-governing, though it retained close ties to Britain and its empire. Australians remained British citizens until the Nationality and Citizenship Act provided for separate Australian citizenship. The six states felt that they belonged together because they shared not only a continent, but also a British background. Federation achieved an independence of sorts for Australia. However, the desire for independence does not seem to have been the main driver of the Federation movement; it was more a desire for unification.

Exploring Democracy, Museum of Australian Democracy. Federation fact sheet, Australian Electoral Commission. Federation of Australia, National Library of Australia. The National Museum of Australia acknowledges First Australians and recognises their continuous connection to country, community and culture. Defining Moments Federation. See our classroom resource. Defining Moments: Australian Federation It also called for an Australasian convention where parliamentary representatives from the colonies would develop a constitution which would provide for a federal government and a federal parliament: The opportunity has arisen for the consideration of this great subject and I believe that the time is at hand … when this thing will be done.

Tom Keneally British approval As the colonies were under British rule, Federation would only come about if the British Parliament passed the necessary legislation. Federation as a Defining Moment Federation was a remarkable political achievement. Curriculum subjects. Year levels. In our collection. Commemorative mug for the Federation of Australia in Souvenir of Australian federation china mug printed with 'Rose and Waratah' pattern green decorations, designed by John Slater and John Shorter.

Explore Defining Moments. Eureka Stockade. White Australia policy. Founding of Canberra. Trans-Australian Railway. Decimal currency. You may also like. Prime Ministers of Australia. Knowing Australian Plants. Symbols of Australia.

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Transportation was a dilemma that the colonies faced. Transporting from one colony to the other became a dear cost. As each colony had different sized rail gauges and you had to change train. Also you were taxed at each colonies border. This became costly for the people and it would be to their advantage to form a federation as the gauges would be All the same and there would only be one tax, not several. The continual need for loans for the colonies would become a financial problem in the future and forming a federation would help.

The colonies needed loans from Britain to build such things as railways and roads. If the colonies joined they would have more money to invest in large projects. This would be a huge advantage for all of them. The problem that faced the six colonies was who to let in and who to not.

There were many criminals coming into Australia and this resulted into crime and a bad reputation. What Australia wanted was good tradesman who would help the economy. But this could only be achieved with controlling who comes in and this would involve forming a federation. It would be beneficial to have a good reputation and economy.

Probably the most contributing factor to the colonies forming a federation was the crisis of defence of the continent. The Victorian era, as it became known, was the time of Queen Victoria's reign. Federation unified Australia as a country. Australia was still very British based at the time of federation, so royal support from Britain, encouraged federation to occur.

This is why her death was taken particularly bad in Australia, and all Australians felt it personally. Both the decline of the British Empire and federation, distanced Britain from Australia and it became a less British based society. As a large amount of white settlers moved into Australia they began to occupy the fertile land.

Federation and Aboriginal Voting Rights Federation, which is often seen as a milestone in the development of Australian democracy, represented a backward step for Aboriginal Australians. As introduced, it would have conferred the right to vote on indigenous Australians. There was support for the idea in official circles in Britain, especially after the Canadian colonies federated in The first practical step towards federation was the creation of the Federal Council of Australasia in It met several times between and , but it had no executive powers, New South Wales remained aloof, and it was generally ineffective.

In October , in a speech at Tenterfield, the veteran New South Wales politician Sir Henry Parkes called for federation, with a strong executive controlled by the Australian people, to ensure that the colonies were properly defended.

Following an informal conference in Melbourne in , all the Australian colonies and also New Zealand sent delegates to a convention in Sydney in March It was chaired by Parkes. However, the colonial legislatures were slow to adopt it and, in particular, there was strong opposition in New South Wales. In popular support for federation began to grow, with the formation of federation leagues in most colonies and a conference of leagues in Corowa in New South Wales.

In the premiers agreed that another convention should be held, with the delegates directly chosen by the electors. There were 50 delegates and only Queensland was not represented. There were majorities in each colony, but only a slim one in New South Wales, where leading politicians such as George Reid remained half-hearted.

In January the premiers made some amendments, mainly at the instigation of New South Wales, and new referenda were held in every colony apart from Western Australia. The negotiations resulted in a few slight amendments and the Constitution Bill was then passed by the British Parliament. Queen Victoria gave her assent on 9 July In the same month a referendum was held in Western Australia and the federationists were victorious. A proclamation was signed by the Queen on 17 September declaring that on 1 January the six colonies would be united under the name of Commonwealth of Australia.

The National Library owes its existence to Federation and from the beginning it set out to document the Federation movement. In it announced that it was seeking complete records of Federation from every possible source. The first substantial manuscript collection acquired by the Library was the archives of the Australasian Federation League of New South Wales, purchased from Edward Dowling in The Federation papers of Sir Edmund Barton were donated by his family in , while the papers of Alfred Deakin were presented by his daughter in The National Library holds the most comprehensive collection of original records of the Federation movement.

They range from official correspondence and working papers of the Federal Conventions and committees to private letters, diaries, and an assortment of printed ephemera associated with the Conventions and the Commonwealth celebrations in The following are the principal collections held by the Library. They comprise correspondence , letterbooks, minutebooks , financial records, subject files, reports, handbills, pamphlets and a manuscript by Dowling.

The papers include correspondence with political leaders in Australia and Britain, speeches, many drafts of the Commonwealth Constitution Bill, and newspaper cuttings. They consist of letters and telegrams concerning his unsuccessful attempt to form the first Commonwealth Government in December The papers include letters on the Federal campaign, including agitation in favour of Federation on the Western Australian goldfields.

They include letters of Deakin, Barton, Wise and other leaders of the Federal campaign. They consist largely of printed ephemera such as programs, menus, invitations, tickets and speeches, mostly in relation to the Commonwealth celebrations in Papers of J.

Holmes, lawyer, judge and bibliographer. The papers include a bibliography of Federation, The papers include many letters of Lady Tennyson referring to Federation. Papers copies of Christopher Crisp, Victorian journalist. The papers consist of correspondence with Deakin and other leaders of the Federal movement.

Papers of H. Higgins, Victorian parliamentarian and delegate to the Federal Convention. The papers include correspondence and newspaper cuttings of the Federation period. Papers of Alfred Deakin, Victorian parliamentarian and delegate to all the Federal conferences and Conventions, They include an extensive correspondence, diaries, notebooks, notes for speeches, drafts of the Commonwealth Constitution Bill, printed ephemera relating to the federal Conventions, newspaper cuttings and the manuscript of The Federal Story.

Papers of B. They comprise notes and letters of Andrew Inglis Clark. Among the papers are correspondence with political leaders, Convention documents and newspaper cuttings. They include notes and speeches on the federal campaign and a volume of documents relating to the Convention. They consist of menus, invitations and other printed ephemera. They include annotated drafts of the Commonwealth Constitution Bill. They include diaries, notebooks, speeches and cutting books.

Papers of L. Crisp, political scientist and author of Federation fathers They include correspondence and the manuscripts of his Federation monographs They include correspondence, copies of documents and research material on Deakin and the Federal movement. Papers of R. Joyce, historian and author of Samuel Walker Griffith They include correspondence, copies of original documents, research material and drafts on Sir William Griffith.

Papers of F. Crowley, historian and author of Big John Forrest The Australian Joint Copying Project microfilmed Colonial Office records documenting the British response to the Federation movement, including the negotiations between the Australian delegates and the British Government in In addition, it filmed personal papers of several ministers and governors who took an interest in Federation. The Library holds the music scores of a substantial number of patriotic songs which were written in support of Federation and to celebrate the inauguration of the Commonwealth.

The following are some examples. Adney, Marcus L. Australia: Australian national anthem , Burn, John C. Chanter, Arthur, Australians all: national song and anthem , De Giorgio, V. Landseer, Laura, Federation waltz , McBurney, S. McCormick, P. Nicholson, John H. Ricketts, Thomas A. Taylor, Toso, United Australia: national song and chorus , c.

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