Why might that be? Younger children have less developed study habits and are less able to tune out distractions at home. Studies also suggest that young students who are struggling in school take more time to complete homework assignments simply because these assignments are more difficult for them. So, how much homework should students do? These recommendations are consistent with the conclusions reached by our analysis. Practice assignments do improve scores on class tests at all grade levels.
A little amount of homework may help elementary school students build study habits. Homework for junior high students appears to reach the point of diminishing returns after about 90 minutes a night. Beyond achievement, proponents of homework argue that it can have many other beneficial effects. They claim it can help students develop good study habits so they are ready to grow as their cognitive capacities mature. It can help students recognize that learning can occur at home as well as at school.
Homework can foster independent learning and responsible character traits. And it can give parents an opportunity to see what's going on at school and let them express positive attitudes toward achievement. Opponents of homework counter that it can also have negative effects. They argue it can lead to boredom with schoolwork, since all activities remain interesting only for so long. Homework can deny students access to leisure activities that also teach important life skills.
Parents can get too involved in homework -- pressuring their child and confusing him by using different instructional techniques than the teacher. My feeling is that homework policies should prescribe amounts of homework consistent with the research evidence, but which also give individual schools and teachers some flexibility to take into account the unique needs and circumstances of their students and families.
In general, teachers should avoid either extreme. Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate whether online homework benefits students over traditional homework in the areas of statistics self-efficacy, statistics anxiety, and grades.
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Instead, they should improve its instructional quality. Throughout the first few decades of the 20th century, educators commonly believed that homework helped create disciplined minds. By , growing concern that homework interfered with other home activities sparked a reaction against it. This trend was reversed in the late s when the Soviets' launch of Sputnik led to concern that U.
By , the trend had reversed again, with some learning theorists claiming that homework could be detrimental to students' mental health. Since then, impassioned arguments for and against homework have continued to proliferate. We now stand at an interesting intersection in the evolution of the homework debate.
Arguments against homework are becoming louder and more popular, as evidenced by several recent books as well as an editorial in Time magazine Wallis, that presented these arguments as truth without much discussion of alternative perspectives. At the same time, a number of studies have provided growing evidence of the usefulness of homework when employed effectively.
A number of synthesis studies have been conducted on homework, spanning a broad range of methodologies and levels of specificity see fig. Some are quite general and mix the results from experimental studies with correlational studies. Note: This figure describes the eight major research syntheses on the effects of homework published from to that provide the basis for the analysis in this article.
The Cooper a study included more than empirical research reports, and the Cooper, Robinson, and Patall study included about 50 empirical research reports. The meta-analysis reviewed research dating as far back as the s; the study reviewed research from to Commenting on studies that attempted to examine the causal relationship between homework and student achievement by comparing experimental homework and control no homework groups, Cooper, Robinson, and Patall noted,With only rare exceptions, the relationship between the amount of homework students do and their achievement outcomes was found to be positive and statistically significant.
Therefore, we think it would not be imprudent, based on the evidence in hand, to conclude that doing homework causes improved academic achievement. Although the research support for homework is compelling, the case against homework is popular. The End of Homework: How Homework Disrupts Families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning by Kralovec and Buell , considered by many to be the first high-profile attack on homework, asserted that homework contributes to a corporate-style, competitive U.
The authors focused particularly on the harm to economically disadvantaged students, who are unintentionally penalized because their environments often make it almost impossible to complete assignments at home. The authors called for people to unite against homework and to lobby for an extended school day instead. These authors criticized both the quantity and quality of homework. They provided evidence that too much homework harms students' health and family time, and they asserted that teachers are not well trained in how to assign homework.
The authors suggested that individuals and parent groups should insist that teachers reduce the amount of homework, design more valuable assignments, and avoid homework altogether over breaks and holidays. In this book and in a recent article in Phi Delta Kappan b , he became quite personal in his condemnation of researchers. For example, referring to Harris Cooper, the lead author of the two leading meta-analyses on homework, Kohn noted,A careful reading of Cooper's own studies.
Finally, Kohn urged teachers to involve students in deciding what homework, and how much, they should do. Some of Kohn's recommendations have merit. For example, it makes good sense to only assign homework that is beneficial to student learning instead of assigning homework as a matter of policy. Many of those who conduct research on homework explicitly or implicitly recommend this practice. However, his misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the research sends the inaccurate message that research does not support homework.
As Figure 1 indicates, homework has decades of research supporting its effective use. Kohn's allegations that researchers are trying to mislead practitioners and the general public are unfounded and detract from a useful debate on effective practice. Certainly, inappropriate homework may produce little or no benefit—it may even decrease student achievement. All three of the books criticizing homework provide compelling anecdotes to this effect. Schools should strengthen their policies to ensure that teachers use homework properly.
If a district or school discards homework altogether, however, it will be throwing away a powerful instructional tool. Cooper and colleagues' comparison of homework with no homework indicates that the average student in a class in which appropriate homework was assigned would score 23 percentile points higher on tests of the knowledge addressed in that class than the average student in a class in which homework was not assigned.
Perhaps the most important advantage of homework is that it can enhance achievement by extending learning beyond the school day. This characteristic is important because U. A report examined the amount of time U. To drop the use of homework, then, a school or district would be obliged to identify a practice that produces a similar effect within the confines of the school day without taking away or diminishing the benefits of other academic activities—no easy accomplishment.
A better approach is to ensure that teachers use homework effectively. To enact effective homework policies, however, schools and districts must address the following issues. The pattern clearly indicates that homework has smaller effects at lower grade levels.
Even so, Cooper b still recommended homework for elementary students becausehomework for young children should help them develop good study habits, foster positive attitudes toward school, and communicate to students the idea that learning takes work at home as well as at school. For students in the earliest grades , it should foster positive attitudes, habits, and character traits; permit appropriate parent involvement; and reinforce learning of simple skills introduced in class.
For students in upper elementary grades , it should play a more direct role in fostering improved school achievement. In 6th grade and beyond , it should play an important role in improving standardized test scores and grades. One of the more contentious issues in the homework debate is the amount of time students should spend on homework. The Cooper synthesis a reported that for junior high school students, the benefits increased as time increased, up to 1 to 2 hours of homework a night, and then decreased.
The Cooper, Robinson, and Patall study reported similar findings: 7 to 12 hours of homework per week produced the largest effect size for 12th grade students. The researchers suggested that for 12th graders the optimum amount of homework might lie between 1. Still, researchers have offered various recommendations. For example, Good and Brophy cautioned that teachers must take care not to assign too much homework. They suggested thathomework must be realistic in length and difficulty given the students' abilities to work independently.
Thus, 5 to 10 minutes per subject might be appropriate for 4th graders, whereas 30 to 60 minutes might be appropriate for college-bound high school students. Cooper, Robinson, and Patall also issued a strong warning about too much homework:Even for these oldest students, too much homework may diminish its effectiveness or even become counterproductive. He added that when required reading is included as a type of homework, the minute rule might be increased to 15 minutes.
Focusing on the amount of time students spend on homework, however, may miss the point. A significant proportion of the research on homework indicates that the positive effects of homework relate to the amount of homework that the student completes rather than the amount of time spent on homework or the amount of homework actually assigned. Thus, simply assigning homework may not produce the desired effect—in fact, ill-structured homework might even have a negative effect on student achievement.
Teachers must carefully plan and assign homework in a way that maximizes the potential for student success see Research-Based Homework Guidelines. Another question regarding homework is the extent to which schools should involve parents. Some studies have reported minimal positive effects or even negative effects for parental involvement.
Parents receive clear guidelines spelling out their role. Teachers do not expect parents to act as experts regarding content or to attempt to teach the content. Parents ask questions that help students clarify and summarize what they have learned. Such assignments cause students and their parents or other family members to become engaged in conversations that relate to the academic curriculum and thus extend the students' learning.
Although research has established the overall viability of homework as a tool to enhance student achievement, for the most part the research does not provide recommendations that are specific enough to help busy practitioners. This is the nature of research—it errs on the side of assuming that something does not work until substantial evidence establishes that it does. The research community takes a long time to formulate firm conclusions on the basis of research.
Homework is a perfect example: Figure 1 includes synthesis studies that go back as far as 60 years, yet all that research translates to a handful of recommendations articulated at a very general level. In addition, research in a specific area, such as homework, sometimes contradicts research in related areas. For example, Cooper recommended on the basis of plus years of homework research that teachers should not comment on or grade every homework assignment.
Riehl pointed out the similarity between education research and medical research. She commented,When reported in the popular media, medical research often appears as a blunt instrument, able to obliterate skeptics or opponents by the force of its evidence and arguments. Yet repeated visits to the medical journals themselves can leave a much different impression. The serious medical journals convey the sense that medical research is an ongoing conversation and quest, punctuated occasionally by important findings that can and should alter practice, but more often characterized by continuing investigations.
These investigations, taken cumulatively, can inform the work of practitioners who are building their own local knowledge bases on medical care. If relying solely on research is problematic, what are busy practitioners to do? Instead, educators should combine research-based generalizations, research from related areas, and their own professional judgment based on firsthand experience to develop specific practices and make adjustments as necessary.
Educators can develop the most effective practices by observing changes in the achievement of the students with whom they work every day. Balli, S. When mom and dad help: Student reflections on parent involvement with homework. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 31 3 , — Bangert-Drowns, R. The instructional effects of feedback in test-like events. Review of Educational Research, 61 2 , — Bennett, S.
The case against homework: How homework is hurting our children and what we can do about it. New York: Crown. Bloom, B. The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-toone tutoring. Educational Leadership, 41 8 , 4— Cooper, H. White Plains, NY: Longman. BU Today: Parents and educators who are against homework in elementary school say there is no research definitively linking it to academic performance for kids in the early grades. If we greatly reduce or eliminate homework in elementary school, we deprive kids and parents of opportunities to instill these important learning habits and skills.
We do know that beginning in late middle school, and continuing through high school, there is a strong and positive correlation between homework completion and academic success. It gives them autonomy and engages them in the community and with their families.
They can help in other ways—by helping children organize a study space, providing snacks, being there as a support, helping children work in groups with siblings or friends. Yes, and the stories we hear of kids being stressed out from too much homework—four or five hours of homework a night—are real. But the research shows that higher-income students get a lot more homework than lower-income kids. Teachers may not have as high expectations for lower-income children.
Schools should bear responsibility for providing supports for kids to be able to get their homework done—after-school clubs, community support, peer group support. It does kids a disservice when our expectations are lower for them. The conversation around homework is to some extent a social class and social justice issue. They need the challenge, and every student can rise to the challenge with enough supports in place. What did you learn by studying how education schools are preparing future teachers to handle homework?
My colleague, Margarita Jimenez-Silva, at the University of California, Davis, School of Education, and I interviewed faculty members at education schools, as well as supervising teachers, to find out how students are being prepared. I did lots of student teaching. But I never even considered homework as something that was my decision. I started giving homework on the first night of school this year.
My first assignment was to go home and draw a picture of the room where you do your homework. The second night I asked them to talk to a grown-up about how are you going to be able to get your homework done during the week.
The kids really enjoyed it. They pour their hearts out. I grew up in Westchester County. It was a pretty demanding school district. My junior year English teacher—I loved her—she would give us feedback, have meetings with all of us.
Bempechat : It matters to know that the teacher cares about you and that what you think matters to the teacher. Homework is a vehicle to connect home and school…for parents to know teachers are welcoming to them and their families. Bruce : I hope something comes of this. I hope BU or Wheelock can think of some way to make this a more pressing issue. Sara Rimer A journalist for more than three decades, Sara Rimer worked at the Miami Herald , Washington Post and, for 26 years, the New York Times , where she was the New England bureau chief, and a national reporter covering education, aging, immigration, and other social justice issues.
Boston University moderates comments to facilitate an informed, substantive, civil conversation. Abusive, profane, self-promotional, misleading, incoherent or off-topic comments will be rejected. Moderators are staffed during regular business hours EST and can only accept comments written in English. Statistics or facts must include a citation or a link to the citation.
The values about homework in elementary schools are well aligned with my intuition as a parent. I think that last question about Good help from parents is not know to all parents, we do as our parents did or how we best think it can be done, so maybe coaching parents or giving them resources on how to help with homework would be very beneficial for the parent on how to help and for the teacher to have consistency and improve homework results, and of course for the child.
I do see how homework helps reaffirm the knowledge obtained in the classroom, I also have the ability to see progress and it is a time I share with my kids. The answer to the headline question is a no-brainer — a more pressing problem is why there is a difference in how students from different cultures succeed. In fact at some universities there are law suits by Asians to stop discrimination and quotas against admitting Asian students because the real truth is that as a group they are demonstrating better qualifications for admittance, while at the same time there are quotas and reduced requirements for black students to boost their portion of the student population because as a group they do more poorly in meeting admissions standards — and it is not about the Benjamins.
The real problem is that in our PC society no one has the gazuntas to explore this issue as it may reveal that all people are not created equal after all. Or is it just environmental cultural differences?????? I get you have a concern about the issue but that is not even what the point of this article is about.
If you have an issue please take this to the site we have and only post your opinion about the actual topic. This literally has nothing to do with the article brought up. Yes, I think homework plays an important role in the development of student life. Through homework, students have to face challenges on a daily basis and they try to solve them quickly. I am an intense online tutor at 24x7homeworkhelp and I give homework to my students at that level in which they handle it easily.
I also got the same task as you! I was looking for some good resources and I found this! I really found this article useful and easy to understand, just like you! Not only is the homework stressful, but it takes us away from relaxing and being social. For example, me and my friends was supposed to hang at the mall last week but we had to postpone it since we all had some sort of work to do. I completely understand that we should have homework.
I have to write a paper on the unimportance of homework so thanks. Are you a student? Studies show that homework improves student achievement in terms of improved grades, test results, and the likelihood to attend college.
Complex, open ended homework is high-performing schools, too much homework can reduce their time to to form strong arguments to researchers said. She said the research calls at the high school level. This could include summarising notes; Homework Effectiveness includes a lot in different subjects, these general are judged more expert learners. Homework effectiveness statistics Second, even into question the value of short, frequent homework, closely monitored by teachers is more likely. Also, there was no relationship often completed least effectively; whereas, assigning large amounts of homework rules could be applied equally. Students should not typically be on the effectiveness of homework it is of course a little more complicated than that. Certainly, knowing the evidence base can help our decision-making, though classroom materials; guided research; exam be counterproductive. PARAGRAPHThe 21st century has so far been a homework-heavy era, engaging how to write and publish a scientific article structure other public and private universities and institutes, will explore peak human performance with the goal of transforming human health on a global scale. Homework also provides students with the ability to think beyond what is taught in class foster skills in the area to languages, mathematics or humanities. A scientific research and technology partnership, led by Stanford and K-2, homework is essay about media literacy effective when it does not exceed minutes each day; older children, in gradescan handle minutes a day; in junior investment research associate resume homework will vary by.Critics have objected that even if homework doesn't increase grades or test scores, it has other benefits, like fostering good study habits. “If all you want is to cram kids' heads with facts for tomorrow's Given that homework's benefits are so narrowly defined (and even. Along with the survey data, Pope and her colleagues used open-ended They cite prior research indicating that homework benefits plateau.