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Writing Courses. All Subjects Language Writing Take free online writing courses to learn essay writing, business writing, creative writing, and more from top universities. View all edX Courses. Professional Certificate 3 Courses. Academic writing for clarity and meaning … Schools and Partners: WitsX …. Finding your voice as a playwright … Schools and Partners: UniversityofCambridge …. Stand Up! They govern how the library is organized and get broken down to call numbers those things on the book so that books on the same topic are shelved together.
You can determine the third in the following way. You can then browse forward and back do not use browser navigation, but use the previous and next links at the top of the search results to see how your subject is handled by the catalogue and if you look to the right of a subject how many books have that subject attached.
Clicking on the subject brings up the books themselves. Once you find a likely looking book click on it, and using the tabs at the top open ups its complete record. At the bottom of the record you will see the subjects attached to the book at the bottom. Clicking on anyone of those will start a search.
Journal Articles and Electronic Books. At this point, you can also start searching journal article databases, primarily Historical Abstracts and the electronic books in Ebrary using authors names, but the more information you have the better you can use these tools. Scholarly articles are detailed and specific and are easier to use when you know exactly what it is you are looking for.
Ebrary lets you search within the full text of books, but to do that effectively you need as much detail as possible. Read looking for questions rather than just information. Be open to the ideas you read about and be conscious of what questions pop into your mind as you are reading.
What are the important aspects of this topic? Who are the key people involved? Why was this written? Is there more you'd like to know about that you aren't finding out? Be tolerant of inconsistency. There is often a huge variety of expert opinions on a topic. Scholars do not always agree and are frequently critical of one another's approach or findings. This does not necessarily mean that one is right and the other wrong, but simply that there are many possible answers to complex issues or problems.
The aspects of a topic where scholars don't agree are often the most interesting ones to research! At this stage you are doing more reading than writing, but try to be aware of what you are doing. Take appropriate notes and read effectively.
Don't forget to keep notes on both your search itself what was done where and what has and has not worked and on your topic. Take notes on facts and ideas. Write things down that stand out, look for aspects of the topic that interest you or for elements of the topic that seem controversial or open to various interpretations. Intentionally seek these aspects as a possible focus for your research.
Write down key terms that describe these ideas. Record relevant citations. Keep a record of those sources of information you use that you may want to return to, and make sure to keep bibliographic information with your notes. Consider using a reference manager software program like Zotero, DEVONthink or Reference Manager to keep notes and bibliographic information linked and organized.
It's very frustrating when you want to use a particularly interesting idea or great quote and can't remember where you found it! Bibliographic software will also help you create your footnotes when you are ready to write. Reading effectively will speed up the research phase considerably. When looking at a book pertaining to your topic, check the table of contents first to see if there are especially relevant chapters to your essay. You will likely not need to read the whole book, as most of it will be irrelevant.
Next look for some key terms in the index at the back. Look for the same nouns person, place, event or thing you searched in the library catalogue and research databases. The index will point you to specific pages where you might find pertinent information. Take notes as you read. Mark down all pertinent information for future citation, including page numbers, of passages that will be useful when you sit down to write your paper.
Take notes in your own words; only write out verbatim particularly poignant passages, and be sure to clear mark these in your notes as direct quotations. You might want to quote these passages in your essay to support your argument. The thesis statement should make itself clear.
Historians will often examine what has previously been written then situate their own methodology method of study and argument within that context. When comparing thesis statements and how they might be discussed in your essay, ask: What sources do the authors use? Do newer works use sources and methods that make older sources obsolete?
This is a key piece of information to consider with every source you are looking at. The Pre-focus Exploration Phase is often characterized by anxiety and uncertainty. Information encountered doesn't fit. It is natural to feel frustrated and possibly overwhelmed when you encounter a large amount of new information, especially when much of that information seems contradictory or inconsistent.
This may lead to feelings of personal inadequacy I can't do this! Inability to express information need. Because you haven't reached a focus yet, it's often hard to articulate what it is you're looking for. This can increase the frustration of using research tools like the library catalogue and databases because you aren't sure what terms to use. Feeling that time is being wasted. Research shows that students frequently feel unproductive during this stage because it may not seem like they are moving forward with their research.
Many abandon their topic altogether. But the exploration phase is essential; it simply takes time and patience. Not open to change and adjustment. If you have too firm an idea of what you're looking for at this point, it may only increase your frustration if the information you find doesn't fit. Try to be receptive to new concepts and flexible in your approach.
Developing a thesis statement is the first major writing step and is crucial for directing both your research and how you formulate your argument. Do not delay on this step. The question might be one that interests you from the list provided by your professor or one you have thought of on your own. Historians do not ask questions with definite answers. They ask questions with debatable answers. Your purpose in writing a history paper is not to articulate your own values, but rather to offer a convincing argument about why or how things happened.
You must concentrate on explanation rather than moral judgment and you must go beyond a mere description of what happened. The second question demands an assessment and a persuasive argument. Never write a paper that implicitly or explicitly answers a moral question such as why slavery is wrong or how horrible the Holocaust was. Answering these questions inevitably involves moralizing rather than analytical argument. Assess whether you have enough information to proceed. Some of the information you have gathered will be of the most general, factual kind.
They are the things that you needed to learn to understand the basic narrative of your subject. While you might need this information to introduce your theme, it probably will not help you to make your specific argument. Other bits of information will no longer be specifically relevant to the topic as you have now narrowed it down. You should understand each bit of evidence that you have collected as a sub-argument of your larger thesis—your answer to the specific historical problem that you have outlined for yourself.
Look at your notes to determine if you have enough to sustain your argument, likely you will need to do some directed research to support your thesis. Construct a working thesis statement early. While it will change as your research continues, thinking about what you want to argue while you are still conducting your research will help focus your reading and note taking.
If you choose your own subject, first pick the topic, then think about how it can be broken up. For instance, if you want to study the Civil War for an American history class, you might break it up into smaller subjects: economy, slavery, Union army, Confederate army, Abraham Lincoln. This narrows your topic down from the more general focus on the whole Civil War. You will come to a specific and debatable question that you can appropriately argue and defend in a short research paper.
As you begin formulating the argument for your essay, the confusion of the pre-focus exploration phase gives way to a sense of clarity and confidence. This is a result of:. Identifying pertinent ideas. From the lists you composed during your exploratory reading, certain themes, issues or elements of the topic will begin to stand out.
Your understanding increases and you can start to focus on those ideas that will inform your further research. Predicting outcomes. Measuring possible foci for your research against the criteria of task, time, interest and information available, you will see which ones might be suitable to choose. Experiencing the 'aha' moment. Some students report that they experience a sudden understanding or a moment of insight where the focus of their research becomes obvious.
Making a decision. After all the muddling about of the exploration phase, the Focus Formulation phase requires a decision. This will set you off in a particular direction and is the stage at which students feel they can really start to make progress. Although you have been gathering information up to this point, once you have clearly defined the focus of your topic by developing your thesis statement you are best able to conduct a literature search for information that defines, extends, and supports it.
Now you should be ready to really dive in to the research databases and dig out the research and sources to support your arguement. This is the phase where you'll really get to know your subject-specific research databases. You'll search them, along with consulting other resources such as the library catalogue for books also known as monographs and subject experts, to pull together the information required to support your thesis.
The best way to do this is to refer to your thesis statement, take it apart to its basic components. Based on what you learned in your initial research what now do you need to know to make an effective argument to support your thesis? At this you will either start to find what you need or realize you need to reconsider your thesis and try again. To do this, you will want to do two things in addition to the techniques used earlier citation mining and database searching. Citation mining This might the single most important technique you will use in your research, and you have already started using it in your initial searches.
Citation mining means going into the citations, the bibliographies and footnotes or endnotes of every relevant source you find to identify further research materials. It is not too difficult to do, but it is often forgotten. Citation mining only really works well when you are using a scholarly or academic source.
Popular histories general do not have the level of citation necessary to make this effective. This is also one of the most effective ways to identify relevant primary sources. For every book you find that is on your topic look through the endnotes or footnotes, particularly for those areas that relate directly to your thesis.
Note down any source used by the author that looks relevant or useful. Take the full information, because depending on what the source is you will need different parts of it to find the citation. Here are some examples of citations with comments on what you would do with them to track down both the source itself and other possibly relevant sources.
Assisted Citation Mining Some technical assistance is available at this step, or at least as you move forward in to the next step. When you are searching databases, whether Historical Abstracts or Google Scholar, watch for links on record descriptions such as as "cites" or "cited by". These will either directly you to sources used in the writing of the article you are looking at, or better still "cited by" links you to other articles that used your current article in their research.
Often those items found with a "cited by" link are also relevant to what you are doing. Basic citation mining lets you know everything that came before a relevant article. Assisted Citation Mining with the "cited by" link helps you identify things on the same topic that came after! Digital Sources The two digital sources you are likely to be using most are Historical Abstracts or Ebrary. Historical Abstracts is used to find scholarly articles and Ebrary is used to find the digital version of books.
In addition to these two tools there are a host of databases that have the digital versions of primary sources ranging from government documents to newspaper articles. Identify the most appropriate databases for your topic. This is one of the most important things you can do.
Many hours have been misspent searching Historical Abstracts for a Medieval topic, or searching the catalogue for an article. All of the library research databases are arranged by subject, and have brief descriptions of the content covered. Be sure to read these descriptions including the dates of coverage before entering a given database to ensure you're starting in the right place. History Primary Sources pulls out those databases are you are most likely to use when looking for primary sources.
Many primary sources are also kept on microfiche. For these you will have to search the library catalogue. Brainstorm the terminology you'll use to describe your topic to the research database or person you're talking to. In the research world this terminology is variously described as descriptors, subject headings, and key words.
This is part of the reason for the Pre-Focus Research, as it will have provided you with a list of terms ready to be worked with. You will also be using information that you mined from the citations of other relevant works. Combining Search Terms.
Library research databases make use of something called Boolean operators to combine different search terms. While it may sound foreign, it simply means the use of the word AND to combine unrelated terms, OR to combine synonyms, and NOT to exclude certain terminology. Here's another example of how Boolean operators work. Truncation is a useful search tool as well. Here's a good example that may help you visualize truncation. Methodically search relevant databases.
You'll discover some overlap in the various databases you search, but no single database and that includes Google when searching the web covers all literature. This means you'll need to repeat your search several times using the same or similar terminology in several different databases. Click here for an example of what you might find and miss using four popular search engines click the name of each search engine once you get there. Results highlighted in yellow are content that is unique to that particular search engine, and represents results you would not have found had you only searched one of the other two in this example.
You will find similar results using library databases! Searches in Historical Abstracts can be complimented by searches in other databases such J-Store, Project Muse, Google Scholar, and Web of Science despite its name it does have some historical data. Request assistance from experts: Database searching is technically simple but that does not mean it is easy to do effectively!
There are few things worse than knowing you found a really good article two days ago, but not being able to find it again today. At this state you are thinking about your outline and thesis and trying to find relevant information, and taking a large amounts of notes. There is more than one way to take notes and different tools to use depending on how you do it you may use a combination of methods. You can use whatever method you like, but you should do it intentionally so that it is effective and gives you what you need in order to write.
Most importantly, you must always record citation information, the author, title, publisher, place of publication and date of publication for books. For articles be sure to record the author, title of the article, title of the journal, page numbers, issue and volume numbers and publication date. This information is necessary for your own bibliography and notes, and it is vital if you need to try to find the source again.
These notes will be what you use to write, they are in addition to notes you have been keeping on the research process itself whether in digital format or on paper. Two popular methods of taking notes are as follows: 1. Post-it Notes or Cards: Some people like to take notes sparingly and carefully, use post-it notes or recipe cards either inserted in the source itself or stacked together.
You don't have a lot of space to write in this method so you end up only recording what is most important, and often summarizing ideas. This can make writing simpler latter and help prevent unintentional plagiarism. Notepad, Word Processor etc. If you take this approach you are likely to have plenty of notes to work with when you start writing your first draft.
On the other hand you might have too many. You may find yourself trying to utilize all the information, cramming it in even when it doesn't support your thesis or when it is only marginally relevant. This can weaken your argument. You may also find yourself using too many block quotes: long quoted sections of the original works. Even with proper attribution, it is better to provide the original author's argument in your own words than just using theirs.
So while you will have plenty of notes this approach may make the writing more challenging. No matter how you take notes though, take the notes with your thesis in mind, think about how the notes you are taking support your thesis. When you look over your notes and start building your outline, think of each idea in your outline or each point in your argument as a short-answer question that needs to be answered with research.
Then make sure the notes you take from your sources are answering those questions. You should start to feel a sense of accomplishment during this phase, though you may encounter setbacks as well. During this phase you will have a better realization of the extent of work to be done and the extent of time commitment to complete the assignment.
You will feel a greater level of confidence in your ability to successfully complete your research, and an increased interest in your topic as you continue to uncover "the good stuff". What follows is one way to approach the final stages of completing a history essay.
It focuses on refining an argument through creating an outline. Outlining your information before you write is crucial to constructing a coherent, organized argument. Not only does an outline aid in the writing process you will never wonder what you are going to write next , it ensures that your essay is complete.
By reviewing your outline, you can see immediately what points are irrelevant and what is missing from your argument. An outline will also help you determine whether you have too much or too little information and whether you might need to modify your argument accordingly. Most importantly, you should use your outline as a way of considering whether your essay will have a logical structure and flow.
There are many ways of organizing historical essays, though they tend to proceed chronologically or thematically depending on the topic. If you choose a thematic approach, you must still pay attention to the chronological order in which events occurred.
Going backwards in time will confuse your reader. There are four basic steps to compiling an outline: preparation of notes, brainstorming, categorizing, and ordering. You do not necessarily have to do things in this precise order. But each step is important. You may also find as you go through these steps that you may need additional information from your sources. Don't be afraid to take the time to get the information you need.
In fact as you will now be addressing very specific questions as determined by your outline it shouldn't take very long. This step is about directly applying your research to your thesis. Preparing your notes. First compile a complete bibliography to make sure that you will not lose or confuse any citations. Now divide up your notes into discrete bits of evidence. How you physically do this will depend upon how you took your notes i.
To simplify the explanation, think about these discrete bits of evidence as separate note cards. If you have handwritten your notes, you might need to cut them apart or use a system of colour-coding with highlighters or sticky-note tabs. Dividing up your notes in this way may seem tedious, but it will pay off quickly in speeding up the organization and writing process.
Set any note cards aside that you already think will not be useful, but do not throw them away. You might change your mind later. Now that you have headings for your note cards, it is a simple matter to make a point-form list of the subjects that you would like to address in your essay. You might make a simple list, or you might use a flow-chart style map to do this, drawing connecting lines between related ideas.
There are various software programs such as the shareware program FreeMind that might help with this stage. Relying on your brainstorming, sift through your notes and group together related pieces of evidence. Physically organize your notes cards into these new piles or word processed sections. If you have used colour-coding or tabs, you will need to write in new headings. Now the real outlining can begin. Take a look at the sub-categories of evidence that you have wound up with.
Group these together into an even smaller number of headings. There is no rule on how many you will need, but it should be a number that is not too large to easily describe in your introduction. Your outline will now look something like this:. Note on the importance of paragraph structure. Paragraphs are not simply a stylistic feature.
They are units of argument. The more attention you pay to structuring coherent paragraphs, the easier it will be for your reader to follow your logic. All paragraphs should make a specific point usually described in an opening topic sentence and contain specific evidence. Most should also make an obvious link to your thesis. Making sure that all these elements are present is easiest if you actually outline your paragraphs in advance.
Assess your outline. While you were compiling your outline, repetitions in argument or conflicting viewpoints might have appeared. In a history essay, it is also important to make sure that you have not confused the chronology of events. Reviewing your outline before writing should also reveal if you have omitted important points or if many of your notes are now irrelevant because of the direction your paper took.
You might also need to do more research. If you have started your paper early enough, filling in the gaps in your notes should not be a problem. Keep all your notes just in case you may need them later. Compiling an outline as we have described will make the writing process much easier. But as you write you must pay even closer attention to matters of argument, evidence, logic and structure. Try thinking of your essay as a journey. You want your reader to come along for the ride and to arrive with you at the destination that you have chosen.
To make sure this happens, you have to make the trip comfortable by ensuring that there are not too many bumps on the road grammatical or stylistic problems , distractions extraneous bits of evidence , wrong turns illogical statements , or road-side bandits misleading uses of evidence or plagiarized wordings or arguments. The actual writing process is quite personal and can be accomplished by using various strategies.
You can write a rough draft in any order. You may want to start with the body of the work or even the conclusion, if you have a good idea for how to end your essay. Whichever order you write, it is always a good idea to go back to the introduction once you are done and make sure that you have actually proven what you said you were going to.
The most important thing is to give yourself enough time so that you can write a rough draft, be able to set it aside for at least a day or two, and then edit it carefully before turning in your essay. See the section on time management in "Topic Selection" - "Writing Strategies". The introduction is the most significant part of your essay.
It must introduce the general topic area, concisely outline the argument you will be making, and provide the reader with a map to how your essay will proceed. At the undergraduate level, it is also recommended that your introduction include your thesis statement.
Given the length of papers that are generally assigned at the undergraduate level, this almost always means that your thesis should be in your first paragraph. You must begin by clarifying the who, what, where, and when of your topic. Who is involved? What is the issue? Where and when did this historical event take place?
You must then concisely state your argument. And, finally, you must describe how the essay will proceed. Providing your readers with a brief description of your outline i. It is also a good way of double-checking that your argument makes sense. If you cannot construct a concise description of how the various parts of your essay fit together, you probably have not thought hard enough about whether all your evidence is related to your thesis.
If there is no logical flow between your sub-arguments, some sections of your essay will seem irrelevant, and your writing will seem choppy. Evaluate your introduction before you begin writing the rest of your paper. Try giving your introduction to friends or family members to read and ask them to explain to you what they think your essay is about.
If they cannot do this or if they do not know what you plan to argue, then your professor will also likely be confused. An adequate introduction should be roughly ten percent of the overall paper, but it can be shorter. How did change occur over time? If you thought carefully about your outline, writing the body of your work should be relatively straightforward.
The paragraphs will flow logically, one idea or argument to the next, building your case in answer to the original question set out. In other words, you should regularly make some kind of explicit reference to the central thesis of the paper. This is analysis. If you have found evidence counter to your main argument or if one of the historians you cite has a different interpretation, include that information and provide a reasoned argument about why your interpretation is more appropriate.
Including the other side lets the reader know that this subject is debatable. A successful counter-argument will also strengthen your paper. Between themes , or at the end and beginning of paragraphs, you should always have a transitional sentence or two that tells the reader where you are going to go next with your overall argument.
If you cannot think of a way to tie parts of your essay together, they may need reordering. Transitional sentences are often called signposts because they give direction to the reader about where you are going. The stable economy permitted political leaders to spend time and money on external affairs. The conclusion is not merely a regurgitation of the introduction.
Avoid repeating point for point what you just wrote in your essay. Briefly summarize the overall argument of your essay and reveal how the subject and your arguments about it are significant. This might include setting the subject in a wider context or indicating what further research could be done. One way to evaluate your conclusion is to read it immediately after the introduction. They should flow together. Quotations serve to prove to the reader that what you are arguing is indeed true.
But quotations, especially longer ones, should be used carefully and sparingly. Limit direct quotations to poignant, strong and well-worded passages. The most useful quotations come from primary sources, because they present the moment or idea as it was originally recorded. Limit quotations from secondary sources to those that present strong arguments or particularly well-worded descriptions.
An essay challenges you to synthesize the ideas of others to form your own argument. You cannot simply copy out what others have written. For information on the mechanics of inserting quotations into your essay refer to Formatting Essentials. Proper citation allows the reader to reconstruct the argument from the sources used.
To be convincing in a scholarly way it must be possible for your reader to use your footnotes to easily find the exact source that you used. This is the reason that all disciplines have developed detailed rules for citing sources. Proper citation is also the only way to avoid plagiarism.
Plagiarized papers automatically receive a failing grade possibly resulting in a failing grade for the entire course. The Faculty of Social Sciences might also apply more severe academic penalties as outlined in the University of Calgary Calendar. What to cite. It should be clear that you must cite your sources for direct quotations. But it is just as important that you provide proper documentation when you paraphrase what others have said in both primary and secondary sources.
There is only one exception. You do not need to document your source of information if it is considered general knowledge. Historian A did not uncover the discovery through her own research; it is common knowledge available in an encyclopedia or textbook. Otherwise, it appears as though you are presenting that information as your own research, which is plagiarism.
The same argument goes for primary sources. Are your arguments clear and do they flow logically? Are your quotations interesting and insightful? Have you used too many quotations? If so, remove or paraphrase some of them. Are your quotations seamlessly woven into your essay, so that the reader sees the relationship between them and your argument?
If not, link them more explicitly to your central thesis or the sub-argument. Have you been sloppy about citation or paraphrasing anywhere in the essay? Above all, did you stay on topic and answer the question? If you have identified gaps in your essay or perhaps quotations that do not quite work, return to your notes to fill in the gaps. Hopefully in the main research stage, you read enough from a diversity of sources and took clear enough notes so that you do not have to return to the library or electronic databases.
This is also the reason why it is vital to take down the bibliographic information and page numbers in the early stage of your research, and even some notes on the search process. You might end up having to repeat some of this process. If you find you relied heavily on one or two authors, try at this stage to interchange them with other sources.
Your argument will seem more thorough if you present the views of many historians. At this stage, you should begin to feel confident and your anxiety should be relieved somewhat. Staying on track. If you have managed to stay focused on your topic, keeping course guidelines and criteria in mind, as well as time constraints, your anxiety about completing the paper should be relieved.
Close to completion. At this point you should feel confident that you have successfully gathered all the relevant information that you need. Still anxious. If you find that you have not been able to find all the relevant information, or that you have very limited time left in order to finish the assignment, your anxiety level might increase. Rethink what you can finish in the time allotted, what information is still required, and perhaps return to the focus formulation phase to revise your topic into something that you can complete with the given information and time constraints.
The language you use and the format of your essay might seem less important than the ideas you express and the evidence you provide to support them, but appropriate language and, to a lesser extent, appropriate formatting are essential if you are to score highly. As regards language, following grammatical and spelling rules enables us to understand each other, assisted by clear formatting.
An essay generally expressed a view of a single topic or subject based on the writer's perspective, and essays can be formal or informal in style and tone. You often must conduct research in one form or another to develop your understanding of the subject before you can effectively write an essay.
Formal essays often revolve around a thesis statement that serves as the central idea you're writing about, while informal essays are less rigid in structure. A thorough grasp of essay writing techniques is beneficial to anybody whose career involves writing of any sort because the skills that essay writing requires can also help you write a good email, business proposal, or academic report. The research involved in writing essays gives you a stronger base of knowledge while using good grammar and writing skills helps you to communicate more effectively in every area of your life.
Essay writing can also help you process the things that you learn and explain them to others. If you have proficiency in essay writing, you'll be able to use your skill in various communications careers, as well as in the general business world. You can work as a journalist, editor, freelance writer, advertising copywriter, or communications director and apply essay writing skills directly on a daily basis.
Essay writing gives you a set of skills that can also benefit you in many other careers. If you need to write a speech, grant proposal, company blog post, or any other piece of writing, you'll be able to call on the skills that essay writing has allowed you to develop. When you study essay writing with online courses on Coursera, you can learn the nuts and bolts of how to write an effective essay as well as how to apply that knowledge in your career.
The online essay writing courses on Coursera bring you content that will help you grow as a writer. Start with a basic survey of essay writing, and branch out to more specific topics like how to write a personal essay, how to turn your essay into a persuasive speech, and advanced grammar.
Learn a job-relevant skill that you can use today in under 2 hours through an interactive experience guided by a subject matter expert. Access everything you need right in your browser and complete your project confidently with step-by-step instructions. Take courses from the world's best instructors and universities. Courses include recorded auto-graded and peer-reviewed assignments, video lectures, and community discussion forums.
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Start your review of Getting Started with Essay Writing. Anonymous completed this course and found the course difficulty to be medium. Get personalized course recommendations, track subjects and courses with reminders, and more. By introducing you to three types of academic essays, this course will especially help prepare you for work in college classes, but anyone who wants to improve his or her writing skills can benefit from this course.
In the last course, you reviewed sentence types and punctuation. You'll use that information in this course to make your writing great. To pass this course, you need to pass all four quizzes and pass all three writing assignments. When you finish one activity, you can continue to the next one.
Essay Writing In this module, you'll start learning about essay structure and some other important tools for good writing. There's a lot of information in this module, but it's all necessary for writing well. Make sure you take notes so you will remember these tools when you write your essays. Note to learners: this course is designed for learners of English with intermediate English writing skills. The sample essays in this course are aimed at that level.
However, the principles discussed in the lessons are practical for writers of any level. If you're at a lower level, do the best you can. If you are a more advanced writer, feel free to write more developed and complex essays than the ones in the examples. Just make sure you follow the structures introduced. In this module, you'll learn what this type of essay is and how to structure it. Remember the sample essays in the lesson are typical for an intermediate-level student. Good luck! This is another type of academic essay that you might be asked to write in your college classes.
For this type of essay you'll think about reasons why something happens or the effects of something. The sample essays in this module are also representative of an intermediate-level writer. Just remember to follow the advice given in the lessons. Writing Argument Essays In this last module, you'll learn how to write the most common type of college essay.
The argument essay is probably the most fun essay to write too. In this one, you will try to convince your reader to believe your argument or position on some controversial topic.
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