In the film, the two farm families are a microcosm of broader social divisions on the issue. Although initially in September these are the concerns of the adults, nevertheless the viewer knows that Ed and Paddy are also unwittingly affected by their external environment. Ed and Paddy, however, remain blissfully unaware, in a state of innocence. The adult conflicts are more overt in Australian Rules than in September , and confrontation is an ever-present and powerful force in this film. Australian Rules references existing situations that reflect racial tension in Australia, which adds credibility to the fictional violence and hatred on-screen.
In another scene, a newspaper clipping of past right-wing federal politician Pauline Hanson is glimpsed under a pile of maggots. Hanson is emblematic of racist politics in Australia, in part a result of her claim that Aborigines enjoyed more privileges than non-Aborigines Hanson. Coming of age in September and Australian Rules is a time when the idealism, innocence and romanticism of the golden age of youth comes directly into contact with the adverse realties of adult life.
He misses boxing practice with Paddy to be with Amelia, and a long, slow shot of Paddy standing alone, waiting in the ring, his back to the camera as he stares out across the empty paddock, captures the abandonment he feels. Secondly, Paddy starts having to work longer hours on the farm. Instead of meeting Ed when his bus arrives at the gate, Rick keeps him working, which means they spend less time together in the spaces of their idyllic youth: the driveway, the boxing ring and the top of the water tank.
Ed never owns up to his involvement and neither does Paddy tell. It is a shameless betrayal by Ed, and one would think unforgivable. A series of changes are triggered by this event: Rick tells Ed he has to stop spending time with Paddy; Paddy refuses to keep working on the farm; and the boxing between the two young men becomes angry. Visually, the sky darkens or disappears from shot, and the landscape narrows and loses its aesthetic significance to signal instead impending conflicts. Blacky, Dumby and Clarence are also unable to remain detached from the conflicts that surround them, and eventually there is a severe and final end to their innocence.
In the week preceding the Grand Final, tensions within the football team escalate, before erupting on the Premiership award night. The snub is interpreted as racist and Dumby leaves in a rage with Pretty. Meanwhile Blacky and Clarence are becoming increasingly more physically and emotionally intimate.
He verbally abuses Clarence and beats Blacky when he finds his son in bed with her. At his most aggressive, he kills Dumby during a botched break-in at the football clubrooms. In an earlier conversation, Blacky asks the scruffy but wise old maggot collector, Darcy Martin Vaughan , if white boys can have a girlfriend from the Mish. These cinematic transitions to adulthood reveal a dilemma embedded in the notion of youth as a golden age. When young, the qualities of innocence and purity are admirable and even desirable, but as an adult they signify immaturity and ignorance.
The adults tolerate innocence only to a point, but as the youth age innocence is considered to be a problem. This may stem from what Anneke Meyer suggests is an adult need to protect young people from their own vulnerability:. The discourse of the innocent child, which emerged with Romanticism, constructs children as inherently virtuous, pure, angelic and innocent. This innocence makes children immature, ignorant, weak and vulnerable, and creates a need for protection.
In both films, three fathers step in to protect their children from what they perceive to be their weakness, that is, their crosscultural intimacy. In September , this is poignantly illustrated in a scene when both families ride into town in the truck together.
The same compositional techniques are employed in Australian Rules. In the changing room, the football team is divided between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal players, but Blacky and Dumby sit with each other, between the two groups. Blacky also traverses the segregated areas of the pub, conversing with both black and white drinkers through the hole in the wall between the rooms.
Thus these young people occupy not only physical but also metaphorical postcolonial interstitial spaces. Paddy refuses to keep working, and instead leaves to join the Jimmy Sharman Boxing Troupe when it finally arrives. Although it is left open, the film suggests that Ed too will choose a different path in life to that of his father. Rejecting this shaky logic, Blacky and Clarence instead plan to leave the town so they can continue to be together.
Through the young people, the films explore the impact of the belief that racial characteristics render Aborigines inferior to non-Aborigines in order to repudiate such an idea. Australian Rules sends an overt message that biological determinism is antediluvian and for ignorant thugs alone. The most extreme example is Bob, the most blatantly racist character in the film who is also an unintelligent, violent, misogynist rapist.
Nevertheless, the film takes a strong ideological standpoint. Smart and mobile, Clarence and Blacky traverse the barriers that Bob wants to retain, and their actions render those boundaries arbitrary and collapsible. Whereas the adults in the films justify the existence of cultural inequities because of unavoidable differences, the youths instead focus on the similarities between themselves. The cultural differences so prominent between the young people in Walkabout are absent in these films, and instead they are each alike in temperament, physicality, interests and abilities.
In September , Ed and Paddy both have easy-going demeanours, are physically healthy and beautiful and, although dialogue is sparse, when they converse they are both equally articulate. Both live in nuclear families, are learning to drive and share a passion for boxing. The three young people in Australian Rules are all interested in football and are intelligent, insightful and love words and language.
To augment this further, class and social inequities between the different families are played down. However, viewer awareness of the existing conditions of poverty in many Aboriginal communities in Australia inform the spectator experience; poor living conditions are frequently raised in the Australian media, and have also been depicted in earlier popular films, such as The Fringe Dwellers Beresford and Dead Heart Parsons Consequently, Blacky, Dumby and Clarence appear similar to each other in respect to class.
The Andersons have modest material possessions and they struggle to pay the farm accounts. There are no conventional indicators of poverty among the unpaid family either, such as shabby clothing or the physical signs of an inadequate diet. Are the youths similar in the sense that they all represent the dynamism of identity afforded them by virtue of their youth, or is their characterisation an expression of assimilationist ideals, whereby Aborigines passively succumb to hegemonic norms?
Or, in other words, in this optimistic, postcolonial, interstitial space of the cinema are the Aboriginal characters simply more like whites than blacks? If the latter is so, then the film makes a problematic suggestion that youth is a golden age because it is a time when young Aboriginal people are able and willing to act like whites.
However, if Paddy, Clarence and Dumby are simply acting white, then Blacky and Ed are simply acting black, as indeed the adults in the film suspect; nevertheless, there is much more going on. The two nonindigenous boys struggle against the racism and mediocrity that surrounds them, and neither hold positions of power in white arenas. They resist adult norms, and by challenging the status quo they reject hegemonic values. Importantly also, whilst cultural and class differences between Ed, Paddy, Dumby, Blacky and Clarence are downplayed in the film, they are not completely erased.
Ed and Paddy spend their days performing distinctly dissimilar activities, and separate residential areas divide Blacky, Dumby and Clarence. Langton proposes that:. The adults in September and Australian Rules are well aware of the social differences between indigenous and nonindigenous and it is the hierarchical nature of these that the young people resist.
Through their friendships, they create new fluid identities for themselves that resist being confined to set cultural boundaries and instead play with sameness and difference. Crosscultural intersubjectivities allow for new notions of selfhood, and new possibilities for reconciliation.
The resolutions of September and Australian Rules provide the key messages of hope that these films offer to a reconciling nation. In September , Ed and Paddy wait until the last minute to make up with each other. Paddy leaves the farm on foot, with his bag packed in readiness to join the boxing troupe.
At this stage, he and Ed are no longer speaking and as he passes Ed on the road, both remain silent. However, Ed realises what is happening and after a moment of soul searching back at the house he gets in the car, overcomes his inability to drive and leaves to pick up Paddy, after which there is a quiet and gentle reconciliation between the two; Ed offers an awkward teenage apology and Paddy indicates his forgiveness.
When they say goodbye outside the car they initially shake hands, performing, it would appear, their new roles of grown men. They then go their separate ways, into their adult lives. Blacky attends the funeral, an unusual choice for a non-Aboriginal Prospect-Bay resident. However, Clarence ignores the animosity toward him and welcomes him to the ceremony, opening the way for others to do the same.
In the final scene, Clarence and Blacky vow to continue their relationship, despite the pressures on them to stop seeing each other from both the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities, making their plans while they are entwined in the water under the pier. Nonetheless, their decision to continue their intimacy into their adulthood also allows for the possibility of change.
If their arguments were left unresolved, or if they abandoned the peaceful equality they experienced as adolescents to become angry and bitter, then the outcomes would be considerably bleaker. The overall impression, I conclude, is that Ed and Paddy, and Clarence and Blacky, will each be wiser and act more justly than their parents and the other adult characters, and this is a direct result of their friendships. Optimistic intercultural friendships between unlikely companions are the basis of these cinematic renditions of reconciliation.
These two films invite us to consider reconciliation positively, as a national coming of age. Centuries of Childhood. Middlesex: Penguin, Australian Rules. Paul Goldman. Madman, Beneath Clouds. Ivan Sen. Danielle Hall and Damien Pitt. Axiom Films, The Blue Lagoon. Randal Kleiser. Brooke Shields and Christopher Atkins.
Columbia, Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. London and New York: Routledge, Bran Nue Dae. Rachel Perkins. Jessica Mauboy et al. Roadshow, Caputo, Raffaele. Cinema Papers 94 : 12— Collins, Felicity and Therese Davis. Australian Cinema after Mabo. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Daly, Anna. Senses of Cinema 25 Davidson, Francesca. Metro : 10— Dead Heart. Nick Parsons. Bryan Brown et al. Beyond Distribution, Derrida, Jacques.
Politics of Friendship. London and New York: Verso, John Duigan. Noah Taylor and Thandie Newton. The Fringe Dwellers. Beresford, Bruce. Nehm, Kristina, et al. Shock, Gandhi, Leela. Cultural Studies Review 9. Gunstone, Andrew. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing, Gwynne, Phillip. Deadly, Unna? Ringwood, Vic: Penguin Books, Hall, Stuart.
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Evaluating existing essay questions using criteria of effective essay questions. Essay contest rules and regulations. In Prospect Bay, a remote outpost on the South Australian coast, two communities, the Goonyas and the Nungas, come together on the one field they have in common, the football field.
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In Australia, significant increases in temperature are predicted. The ANZAC experience that first touched the lives of many Australians in has continued to have a significant impact throughout the. The purpose of essays is for you to demonstrate your understanding of certain key concepts associated with your course and communicate this australian rules essay understanding in a formal, structured way. Australian Rules essaysA film producer's motives for making a film are varied but they all have a common goal, that is, they aim to provide the viewer with an insight into a certain topic or issue.
Friday essay: truth telling, Return to Uluru and reckoning with the sins of fathers published two decades ago in Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Skip to content. And, quite clearly, Gwynne and director Paul Goldman have been both naive and insensitive in underestimating the depth of feeling they were stirring up.
For all that, the film itself is so good - a thoroughgoing indictment of racism wrapped around some very beguiling storytelling - that I can't help but be grateful for it. And while it would have been wiser and kinder to put more distance between the real and the imagined by, say, switching its setting to another part of the country, I'm guessing that a lot of what I like about it would have been lost.
Gwynne is drawing on his memories of the kind of town he grew up in. You can't call it unadorned naturalism. Memory and art have colluded to produce something larger than life. Nonetheless, the film anchors itself very firmly to this little fishing town hanging off the edge of the continent. If the story had slipped its moorings and moved off somewhere else, you fancy that the whole thing could have come adrift. It's in no sense a ground- breaker - the opposite, in fact.
It's a classic tale, or rather several of them, tightly bound together. The first half sets you up for an optimistic crowd pleaser a la Billy Elliot and Bend It Like Beckham about adolescents on their way to achieving a sense of autonomy from excelling at something they love. But running in tandem with this scenario is a variation on the Old Testament story of David and Jonathan. Gary Nathan Phillips , one of these teenage heroes, is white. The other, Dumby Luke Carroll , is Aboriginal, and their friendship flourishes on the football field because the gulf between their communities is so great that the football field is pretty well the only place they meet.
At football, the town's established order is reversed. The Aborigines dictate the play and set the pace. And Dumby is their star. If things go right, football will be his passport out into the world. Gary, meanwhile, pins his hopes for escape on his desire to write. One of the boys' after-football rituals is their walk home together, with Gary making up stories on request.
Being with Gary lets Dumby's imagination out to play. And his sister, Clarence Lisa Flanagan , is even more susceptible. In a Romeo and Juliet-type sub-plot, she and Gary are starting to fall for one another because his love of words speaks directly to her own. The charm in all this lies in the easygoing affection between the boys.
Luke Carroll, who's done a lot of TV and some stage work, gives Dumby the vitality of the natural athlete, together with a grace which spills over into everything he does. And Nathan Phillips, whose CV includes some stand-up comedy, has a quiet way of finding the underlying humour in a scene. Behind the round, boyish face is a grown-up and he and Lisa Flanagan, another screen newcomer of startling sophistication, strike some real sparks in their love scene together simply because they know how to talk to one another.
This leads to his attitude towards his role in the household; he sees his role as the father to be one of authority, providing and disciplinary. Paul Goldman also positions the viewer to reject this view of masculinity. They provided the viewer with an insight into the view of masculinity.
He also shows that the men in town think that their children should grow up exactly like them instead of letting them become their own person. The women in the film Australian Rules are intelligent, alcoholic, smoker. Pickles mum shows a bad image of being an Australian woman by how she acted in the film.
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Over 30 successfully finished orders. Page count 1 page words. Related Essays. Being australian Essay Words 2 Pages. Australian Sports Essay Words 4 Pages. Start to design Essay Words 4 Pages. Get your custom essay sample. Sorry, but downloading is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. Thank You! Sara from Artscolumbia. Social contemporary. Any country. New Zealand. United Kingdom. Director of Photography. Executive Producer.
Production designer. Writer of Original Material. Find only titles matching ALL options selected. Screen Australia The Screen Guide. The Screen Guide. Australian Rules Feature 98mins Completed. Powered by Viewing Options Choose a viewing option below. I understand, take me to Cancel. Development Support Project-specific support provided by Screen Australia's development programs since the agency's inception in July Production support Project-specific support provided by Screen Australia's production investment programs since the agency's inception in July Cannes Film Festival Sundance Film Festival Stockholm International Film Festival