This effect decreases over time but remains significant for at least eight days. It is larger for upwind fires and is limited with a lower wind speed. Combining the biographical information of the County Party Secretaries with the county-level fiscal data, it finds that the local leaders with a more severe famine experience in early childhood would increase fiscal expenditures on agriculture and social security.
They also reduce agricultural tax. As a result, it leads to the development of agricultural sector. Title Three Essays in Development Microeconomics. Author Guo, Shiqi. Record Created Record ID Development economics. Cited By Counts. Online Attention.
Usage Metrics Page views. Full-text downloads. Cai, Shu. Chapter 1 provides a new explanation for the stronger relationship between income and subjective wellbeing SWB found in cross-sectional versus panel studies based on the predictions of a rational expectations model of utility maximization with permanent and transitory income shocks. The model predicts that SWB is affected by unanticipated rather than anticipated income shocks, and is more influenced by permanent rather than transitory income shocks.
We confirm the model predictions empirically by analyzing panel data from China, and show that differences in the relative importance of permanent income can explain the stronger weaker impact of income often found in cross-sectional panel estimation. We also empirically confirm asymmetric impacts of positive and negative transitory income shocks as predicted by a model with credit constraints.
In Chapter 1, I examine characteristics predicting parental ideal family size and whether children of birth orders exceeding parental ideals experience worse nutritional status among the Tsimane, a high-fertility and high-mortality indigenous population in the Bolivian Amazon. I find minimal evidence that birth orders exceeding parental ideals are associated with worse height-for-age, weight-for-age, stunting, hemoglobin, and anemia in children aged The observed mismatch between ideal and achieved family size does not predict lower child nutritional status in this population, perhaps due to mitigation of exceeding ideals via effective buffering strategies.
In Chapter 2, I focus on a larger sample of Tsimane children to examine the association between maternal socioeconomic status and childhood nutritional status. I find that maternal Spanish proficiency is associated with improved height-for-age z-scores, a one-third reduction in odds of stunting for children aged , and nearly a halving in odds of stunting for children aged This analysis suggests the importance of Spanish proficiency, which allows for increased access to markets, information, and health care.
Chapter 3 examines the association between grandparental coresidence and child nutritional status in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. Grandparents are not uniformly associated with childhood nutritional status by sex, age, or wealth.
There is evidence of a positive association between coresident grandmothers and child nutritional status in Peru, but in several countries households with higher wealth indices appear to buffer children against any negative nut.
I explore various household behaviors in developing economies, using India and Tanzania as examples. The first two chapters focus on urban slums to capture the inequality within cities and to evaluate the impact of an intervention during urbanization. The third chapter investigates the influence of an inheritance law reform on child labor. The first chapter, which is a joint work with Claus Portner, examines the differences in child health across rural, urban non-slum and slum areas.
The developing world is rapidly becoming more and more urban, but our understanding of the differences between urban and rural areas is still limited, especially in the important area of child health and its determinants. Simple averages show clearly that child health in India is worst in rural areas and best in urban areaswith slums in betweenbut it is unclear exactly what accounts for these differences.
We examine the determinants of these differences and to what extent the same mechanisms affect child health in different areas using the National Family Health Survey NFHS-3 data from India. Once we control for environmental conditions and wealth status, the urban advantage in child health disappears and slum children fare substantially worse than their rural counterparts. We also examine the impact of maternal education on child health across rural, urban, and slum areas and find that the positive effect of mother's education on child health is significantly stronger in rural areas than in cities and almost entirely absent in slums.
Potential explanations for these results, such as school quality and migration, are explored, but these are unlikely to fully explain the differences in health. The second chapter, which is a joint work with Aidan Coville, evaluates the impact of a slum upgrading project in Tanzania.
Developing countries spend significant amounts of their budgets annually on slum upgrading. I apply the methodology to the analysis of child malnutrition in Peru, a country characterized by very high rates of malnutrition and great variation in altitude. Yet empirical evidence across developing countries shows mixed results. This study aims to examine the association between decentralisation, public services and well-being in decentralised Indonesia.
It argues that decentralisation enhances citizen well-being through improved local government capacity better able to deliver public goods and services. With lack of local government capacity and accountability, decentralisation decreases well-being. Read Now ». This dissertation is a collection of three independent essays in empirical development economics using data from China. At the conclusion , we give following three suggestions : Increase investment in human capital , protect intellectual We start from the question whether the change of the income inequality of China's residents follows the Kuznets's Inverted - U hypothesis This book provides a timely update on the ongoing transformation of the Chinese economy.
As the world's second largest economy, China marked the 40th anniversary of economic reform and opening-up in Morduch, J. Putterman, L. This thesis consists of three independent essays on the fields of development economics and environmental economics. Three papers A. Deaton , G. Hart , and G.
Fields discuss some critical analytical and empirical issues regarding inequalities of Regional growth and inequality in rural China. Although the three papers in the first part provide partial background information of macroeconomic policies and give some The first essay, coauthored with Dennis Yang in Chinese University of Hong Kong, studies the relationship of globalization and wage inequality in urban China.
China's spectacular economic growth during the reform era from to has captivated much attention both in academia and in the policy arena. This book offers a comprehensive account of inequality in China from an interdisciplinary perspective.
In her first model , " new technologies economic growth on the one hand and government China's significant economic reforms between Three Essays on Three essays on Chinese higher education after expansion and reform: Sorting, financial aid and The impact of China's economic productivity growth. Based mainly on original research, this book will be of interest to growth economists, development economists, transition economists, China specialists, policy-makers, and indeed all those who are intrigued by the Chinese growth phenomenon.
This dissertation provides empirical evidence on regional development and urban growth in China. Income Inequality and Health in Transition Economies In the first two chapters, I examine the determinants of choices within the household.
In the first chapter, I estimate the causal effects of total income, relative female and relative male income on sex imbalance. The second chapter studies the effects of relaxations in the One Child Policy on sex ratios and family size and then exploits the exogenous variation in family size caused by the relaxations to estimate the causal effect of family size on school enrollment.
The third chapter is a descriptive study of income inequality for top income earners in China during and the potential redistributive effectiveness of progressive income taxation. In this book, top scholars on Chinese economic studies review China's remarkable economic achievement in the past four decades and analyse the challenges facing economic development in the country.
The book focusses on structural changes of China's economy, which are essential to steer the country towards sustainable development. It studies the long-term factors affecting the Chinese economy such as education and innovation, and emerging sources of economic growth, such as e-commerce.
Other important aspects of the Chinese economy explored in this book include the economic role of the Chinese government, fiscal reforms, capital account liberalisation, housing policies, competition policy and anti-monopoly law, China's export, trends of regional development and reforms of state-owned enterprises.
This rich collection of policy-oriented economic studies is also a tribute to Professor John Wong, former research director of the East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore, who passed away in June For over three decades, Professor Wong had followed and provided insightful analyses on China's economic development.
Author : Juann H. Moreover, this book introduces an array of data and data sources useful to scholars and practitioners interested in studying the Chinese model of economic growth. The first two papers use the same theoretical model to explain different issues in developing countries. The third paper studies the effects of population growth on the Environmental Kuznets Curve provided it exists. China's internal migration plays an important role in explaining its recent economic success.
The first paper constructs a model of labor migration, focusing on the role of selection effects in determining labor market outcomes, and then calibrates it to quantify the effects of China's labor market reforms on its outputs and inequality. I show that the removal of internal migration restrictions benefits the economy as a whole, while exacerbating inequality within both rural and urban areas.
The second paper suggests that minimum wage policy may be beneficial for a transitional economy in which labor is migrating from rural areas to urban areas when positive moving costs occur. With a moving cost wedge a modestly binding minimum wage can cause relatively low productivity urban workers to be replaced by higher productivity rural migrants, and therefore increase aggregate output. To achieve the second best outcome, government shall fully compensate the moving costs for the marginal migrant workers who move from the rural industrial sector to the urban subsistence sector and a binding minimum wage shall be imposed on the urban workers but not the migrant workers in the urban industrial sector.
The Environmental Kuznets Curve EKC hypothesis postulates an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth and many local environmental health indicators. By using an overlapping generations OLG model, I focus on technological effects, where the properties of the existing pollution abatement technologies could generate the inverted U-shaped EKC and other forms of growth-pollution paths for the less advanced economies.
Moreover, I examine the effects of population growth on the shape of the EKC, provided that it exists. Simulations indicate positive population growth raises the height of the EKC at every level of output per worker; thus, putting an extra burden on environment quality. Empirical evidence from China partially supports the results. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc.
Specific topics include China's market reforms and its new forms of scientific and business alliances, sustainable land use in the Three-Gorges area, and inter-village income inequality in China. We develop a model to study the joint determination of the ownership structure of offshoring, skill upgrading, and wage inequality in developing countries. Because of the abundance in low-skilled labor and contractual frictions in the South, the skill intensity of intra-firm offshoring dominates that of arm's length offshoring.
As a result, processing trade by foreign-owned firms has a greater effect on skill upgrading and skill premium in developing countries compared with that by joint ventures and indigenous firms. We test these theoretical implications with a natural experiment in which China lifted its restrictions on foreign ownership upon its accession to the WTO.
We find that the processing export by foreign owned firms may contribute 75 percent to the rising of skill premium in urban China after In the second essay, Dennis and I continue to explore the role of institutional reforms in speeding up the product cycle in developing countries.
Our model demonstrates that relaxing foreign ownership controls and improving contract enforcement can induce multinational companies to expand product varieties to host developing countries, and that a combination of the two reforms has an amplifying effect on product transfers. Empirically, we find that ownership liberalization and judicial quality played an important role in raising the extensive margin of processing exports in China for the period of The third essay takes a novel approach to detect the latent currency portfolio of Chinese foreign reserves during and I decompose the monthly growth rate of reserves into the monthly rate of return, valuation effects of exchange rates, and monthly net purchase rate.
The valuation effect reveals the value share of each currency. Bayesian inference is adopted to estimate the State-Space model with mixture Gaussian distributions. The results show that China significantly and dramatically diversified its reserves out of the U.