After having made the visual and scientific case for the direct use of optical projections, David Hockney became increasingly interested in the indirect use of optics by artists. That is, he felt that having seen 3-dimensional scenes projected onto 2-dimensional surfaces would have strongly influenced artists even when they did not directly use projections for a particular painting e. John Keane chose to render the background of a recent portrait out of focus, similar to the look of a photograph.
By David Hockney and I had assembled a wide range of scientific evidence that demonstrated optical projections had been used by a number of artists. As a central part of our investigations we had experimentally verified every aspect of our calculations e. Other than our initial paper in , all of our subsequent scientific publications on this topic have been solicited by academic editors and conference program committees to go with invited talks.
My research program in optical physics i. Brillouin light scattering, x-ray optics, etc. This ongoing research program has combined for the first time the visual insights from an artist as skilled as David Hockney, with the mathematical and scientific background of a scientist. Critics of the Hockney—Falco theory claim that the quality of mirrors and optical glass for the period before and a lack of textual evidence excluding paintings themselves as "documentary evidence" of their use for image projection during this period casts doubt on the theory.
Leaving the technical optical arguments aside, historians of science investigated several aspects of the historical plausibility of the thesis in a set of articles in Early Science and Medicine. Leonardo's notebooks include several designs for creating concave mirrors. Leonardo also describes a camera obscura in his Codex Atlanticus of — The camera obscura was well known for centuries and documented by Ibn al-Haitham in his Book of Optics of — In 13th-century England Roger Bacon described the use of a camera obscura for the safe observation of solar eclipses , exactly because the viewer looks at the projected image and not the sun itself.
These manuscripts not only describe methods for making mirrors and parabolic mirrors but also discuss their use for image projection. Sara J. Schechner claimed that surviving glassware from the 15th and 16th centuries is far too imperfect to have been used to create realistic images, while "even thinking about projecting images was alien to the contemporary conceptual frame of mind. Ilardi documents Lorenzo Lotto 's purchase of a high-priced crystal mirror in , bolstering the Hockney—Falco thesis in Lotto's case.
Furthermore, even normal eyeglasses spectacles can also project images of sufficient optical quality to support the Hockney—Falco thesis and such eyeglasses, along with magnifying glasses and mirrors, were not only available at the time, but actually pictured in 14th century paintings by artists such as Tommaso da Modena. Dutch draper and pioneering microbiologist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek — , a contemporary of artist Vermeer and an executor for Vermeer when he died in in Delft was known to have exceptional lens making skills, having created single small lenses capable of x magnification, far exceeding those of more complex compound microscopes of the period.
Indeed, his feats of lens making were not matched for a considerable time as he kept aspects of their construction secret; in the s, C. Stong used thin glass thread fusing instead of polishing to recreate Leeuwenhoek design microscopes. It was long believed that Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was a master lens grinder a notion repeated in the recent BBC television documentary "Cell". However, it is now believed [ by whom? On his website, Falco also claims Schechner overlooked manuscript evidence for the use of mirrors made from steel and other metals, as well as numerous metal artifacts that belie the claim that sufficiently large and reflective metal mirrors were unavailable, and that other contributors to the Early Science and Medicine volume relied on Schechner's mistaken work in dismissing the thesis.
Don Ihde called the hypothesis being 'hyped' and referred to clear evidence about the use of optical tools by, e. Van Eyck also left his signature above this mirror,  showing the importance of the tool. The painting includes a crown glass window in the upper left side, a rather expensive luxury at the time. Van Eyck was rather fascinated by glass and its qualities, which was as well of high symbolic importance for his contemporaries.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Perspective comparison of paintings and photographs of Renaissance chandeliers". In Kittler, J. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition. ISBN December Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm.
PMID Tyler, "Rosetta Stoned? Journal of Optics. The New York Times. Retrieved Walter de Gruyter. Bucknell University Press. Cambridge Quarterly. ISSPA S2CID Stork, FAQ accessed March 16, Bibcode : Natur. IEEE Multimedia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Early Science and Medicine. JSTOR
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|Conceptual framework for dissertations examples||ISBN Walter de Gruyter. Hockney suggests that later artists, beginning with Caravaggioused convex mirrors as well, to achieve a large field of view. Fascinated by old masters and in particular Caravaggio and Vermeer, David Hockney thought there was something extraordinary about their works that could not be explained in any other way than the artists using optical aids. It was long believed that Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was a master lens grinder a notion repeated in the recent BBC television documentary "Cell". In 13th-century England Roger Bacon described the use of a camera obscura for the safe observation of solar eclipsesexactly because owl apa research paper example viewer looks at the projected image and not the sun itself. Schechner claimed that surviving glassware from the 15th and 16th centuries is far too imperfect to have been used to create realistic images, while "even thinking about projecting images was alien to the contemporary conceptual frame of mind.|
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Tyler acknowledges Stork for help with his paper, indicating Stork too failed to understand this key optical principle I explain elsewhere in this FAQ how the very optical features of the octagonal pattern that confused Tyler and Stork are what allowed us to calculate the focal length and diameter of the lens that Lotto used. To date, no papers have reported any errors in our calculations, and no technical papers other than the incorrect ones of Stork et al.
Turning to the historical, an issue of the journal Early Sciences and Medicine contains manuscripts by seven historians of art or science. For the pre period i. Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast DIC micrograph of the surface of an iron mirror approximately seven months days after I polished it. Since I live in the Sonoran Desert, to somewhat simulate the humidity of Flanders, after polishing I placed this mirror on a window sill in a bathroom at home along with a digital hygrometer.
Although Schechner does not reference it in her paper, a detailed description for making large, bright, concave, ferrous, steel mirrors is in a manuscript known to date from no later than i. Metals other than iron that also might have been used for concave mirrors in the Renaissance brass, bronze, silver, lead, tin, etc.
Schechner claims images could not have been projected at the time of van Eyck because the metal was too poor to make mirrors of sufficient reflectivity: Medieval mirrors of metal were also small, dark, and convex. For example, it is obvious from the photograph below that metal was widely available of more than sufficient quality and quantity for making high reflectivity mirrors:.
As countless examples of armor on display in museums show, Dr. Note that even though the above war hammer has been kept in a case in a museum, rust has formed on its surface since it was last polished. The translation of this manuscript is in a monograph by a well-known historian of Medieval science at Princeton, who is not referenced by Schechner. Schechner is not the only historian whose knowledge of the relevant history of optics is incorrect. In the monograph cited in the previous paragraph, historian Vincent Ilardi describes spectacles for short-cited people that are documented in a letter to have been available at least as of that date.
His qualitative descriptions, juxtaposed with reproductions of the paintings, are compelling. In Susan Grundy received her Ph.
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