In a nutshell, the concept of culture has two major definitions. On the one hand, culture is an integrated set of values, norms and behaviors acquired by human beings as members of a society. On the other hand, from a sociological stance, culture refers to artistic and symbolic creations, heritage and cultural products.
In relation to globalization, these two aspects have important implications with respect to how individuals express their cultural identities, in terms of the future of cultural traditions, and with cultural industries. Therefore, for purposes of the present chapter, the concept of culture refers to the two above-mentioned aspects. For millions of years, human groups spanned over immense territories without means of communications other than reliance on their physical body parts such as their eyes, voices, hands and legs.
With the advent of the urbanized metropolitan cities dating back to more than 5, years ago and the beginning of commercial activities, cultural exchanges have taken place between individuals living among various societies. However, in the past, means of communication and transportation were limited and cultural characteristics did not circulate as rapidly and easily as in modern times. With the industrial revolutions, societies began to have access to machines which allowed them to create cultural products and export them across borders.
By the 18 th century, thinkers had forecasted a non-reversible trend of cultural standardization. However, the predominance of the nation-state and national economic barriers had protected and insulated cultures from external influence. Cultural uniformization based on the European model at the end of 18 th century was prevalent, particularly due to the success of the rational capitalism that characterized Europe and which was the symbol of cultural modernity Weber, Additionally, the enlightenment thinkers had forecasted a uniformized and borderless world in the sphere of values.
In the 19 th century, cultural industries depended on technical innovations during the first and second industrial revolutions such as, printing in , and electricity and cinema in Further, cultural miscegenation-related fear dates back to when Arthur de Gobineau wrote an influential essay on the inequality of human races in France.
Marx and Engels noted an intellectual convergence in the literature which was a kind of intellectual globalization of ideas that preceded the materialistic globalization of goods and markets. As for the German intellectual Goethe, he pleaded for a world culture through world literature Weltlitertur where everybody would contribute.
In the 20 th century, cultural industries appeared as communication technology started to develop and flow seaminglessly across borders. Interactions between globalization and culture do not seem to be a recent phenomenon. In fact, they constitute, particularly with the influence of globalization on culture, a contention point in the literature as various theoretical standpoints have been developed to examine these interactions.
These standpoints will be grouped under three different scenarios and presented in the subsequent sections. While certain scholars i. Appadurai, ; Featherstone, admit that globalization for the most part originates from Western cultures, they however reject the idea that this phenomenon constitutes a homogenization of world cultures resulting from one way exchanges among the latter.
Two distinct variants of heterogenization can be distinguished Chan, The heterogenization at a local level refers to a situation where the practices of a sphere of life in a specific milieu or locale become more diverse over a period of time.
The heterogenization at a trans-local or global level refers to a situation where the practices of a sphere of life in at least two locales become more distinct over a period of time. In short, heterogenization, which has also been labeled differentiation, relates fundamentally to barriers that prevent flows that would contribute to making cultures look alike Ritzer, In this perspective, cultures remain different one from another. Heterogenization represents a process which leads to a more inwardly appearing world due to the intensification of flows across cultures Appadurai, Hence, local cultures experience continuous transformation and reinvention due to the influence of global factors and forces.
It is important to keep sight of the fact that according to this perspective, cultures do not remain unaffected by global flows and globalization in general, but the actual crux of the culture remains intact and unaffected, as has always been Ritzer, with only peripheral surfaces directly impacted. The convergence thesis advancing that globalization favors homogenization of the world underestimates the global flows of goods, ideas and individuals. In this regard, Robertson , who is critical of the focus on processes stemming from the United States and its homogenizing impact on the world, advocates the notion of heterogeneity with a focus on diversity, multi-directional global flows and the existence of world processes that are independent and sovereign of other nation-states.
These flows do not eradicate local cultures, they only change some of their traits and reinforce others. Along the same line, Wiley contends that national cultures, which are fluid constructs, have become part of a heterogeneous transnational field of culture. Different cultural groups develop into heterogonous entities due to differences in demands necessitated by their environment in efforts to adapt to the requirements of the latter. And consequently over a period of time, these groups become diversified and very different due to environmental circumstances and pressures.
For instance, although the spread of the colonization phenomena yielded a reduction of cultural differentiation, when the colonization movement receded, cultures sprung up and cultural differentiation was favored. In sum, it has been documented in some instances that foreign cultural practices remain in the margins of local and national cultures resulting in a side-by-side coexistence of distinct and disparate global and local cultures Prasad and Prasad, It seems that cultural differentiation will most likely remain strong despite globalization forces.
Are international exchanges and flows of goods, services, capitals, technology transfer and human movements creating a more standardized and unique world culture? Would acculturation, which yields from long and rich contacts between societies of different cultures, result in a universal culture? The homogenization perspective seems to positively answer these questions as the increased interconnection between countries and cultures contributes to forming a more homogenous world adopting the Western Euro-American model of social organization and life style Liebes, In the homogenization view, barriers that prevent flows that would contribute to making cultures look alike are weak and global flows are strong Ritzer, In its extreme form, homogenization, which is also known as convergence, advances the possibility that local cultures can be shaped by other more powerful cultures or even a global culture Ritzer, This perspective is reflected in several concepts and models such as the Global Culture, Americanization and more importantly the McDonaldization theory.
Across different regions and countries in the world, more and more people seem to watch the same entertainment programs, listen to the same music, consume common global brand products and services, and wear the same or similar clothes Prasad and Prasad, In other terms, globalization contributes in creating a new and identifiable class of individuals who belong to an emergent global culture.
According to this concept, the selfsame dynamics of globalization are weakening the connections between geographical places and cultural experiences Held and McGrew, , and eroding the feeling of spatial distance which tends to reinforce a sense of national separateness Prasad and Prasad, This is presumably due to the fact that globalization contributes in atrophying identities and destroying local cultural traditions and practices, diluting, even eliminating the uniqueness of national cultures, and establishing a homogenized world culture.
However, some proponents of the concept of global culture argue that the latter is not cohesive in nature and refers to a set of cultural practices that only bear surface resemblance. Moreover, Smith completely rejects the existence of the notion of global culture whether as a cohesive or discordant concept.
Along the same lines, Tomlinson maintains that globalization makes individuals aware of the diverse national cultures in the world which are multiple in numbers and distinct in nature. Hence, globalization strengthens national cultures rather than undermine them. In addition to the latter, there is an American monopoly of the media as seen with popular films, music, and satellite and television stations around the globe.
It should be highlighted that the American conception of culture is open and far from the erudite notion of several European countries, for instance. Further, the American way of life does not appear to be elitist and aims at spreading cultural products to the masses which increase economic opportunities. This model is desired by other populations, developed and developing. Nonetheless, it has been documented that only countries that share values similar to those of the United States are more inclined to adopt products which reflect the American culture and consider them as their own; conversely, cultures with values different than those of the United States are less likely to embrace products typical of the American culture Craig, Douglas and Bennett, Therefore, the Americanization phenomena seems to be contingent with the predisposition of local cultures to embrace artifacts reflective of the American culture, rather than with the simple availability of these artifacts.
There is little doubt if any that the McDonaldization theory constitutes an important symbol of the homogenization perspective. McDonaldization is the idea of a worldwide homogenization of cultures through the effects of multinational corporations. The process involves a formal consistency and logic transferred through corporate rules and regulations. These principles embedded within the system are efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control.
In fact, the McDonald formula is a success for the reason that it is efficient, quick and inexpensive, predictable and effective in controlling both labor and its customers. Most important to the origins of McDonalization is the interaction between culture and economics. Although Ritzer , like Robertson recognize economic factor as forces of McDonaldization, the authors emphasize the importance to consider cultural factors. For instance, examining the fit between a culture that values efficiency and accepts a McDonalized system is vital for companies planning to take their businesses global.
In this regard, Weber maintained that the West has been characterized by an increasing tendency towards the predominance of formally rational systems. Further, McDonalization refers to the far-reaching process of social change Ritzer and Malone, It impacts social structures and institutions in its country of origin, as well as, in other developed and developing countries around the world.
Ritzer and Malone contend that organizations in foreign markets that adopt the basic principles of the model are to an extent undergoing the process of McDonaldization. In other words, the latter is actively exporting the materialization and embodiment of that process.
It seems that the McDonalization model has transformed the nature of consumer consumption by encouraging and compelling individuals to consume infinite amounts of goods and services. Due to the fact that McDonaldized systems are robust entities imposing themselves on local markets in other societies, these systems are drastically transforming economies and cultures along the process Ritzer and Malone, The phenomenon of being McDonaldized has transformed the many aspects of the cultures within those societies, particularly, the way people live in their environments.
It should be noted that while businesses may slightly adapt to local realities, the fact is that the basic items available for customers are generally the same worldwide Ritzer and Malone, Even more importantly is the fact that the core operating procedures remain similar in every outlet around the globe. Thus, the most important aspect of the McDonalized systems is in how local and global businesses operate using their standardized principles. What is actually being sold in not as relevant as the activities related to how things are organized, delivered and sold to customers; it is these steps that must abide to similar sets of principles for the business to be successful in its new global context.
Despite the contribution of the McDonaldization theory in explaining implications of globalization, Pieterse stresses that fast food outlets like McDonalds and the sort are not at all culturally homogenized but rather characterized by differences that reflect culturally mixed social forms. In fact, McDonaldized systems have had to adapt in order to succeed overseas. Organizations once imported, serve different social, economic and cultural functions that all need to be custom-tailored to local conditions.
In fact, every point substantiated by the theory turned out to have different outcomes in Moscow. For instance, the fast food outlet appeared to function inefficiently with customers waiting for hours in extensive long line-ups to get their meals served. Talbott observed that, in opposition to what the McDonaldization theory holds about predictability, the main attraction for the Russian customer is in the diversified and unique lines of products that the chain offers not the standard menu items that one thinks they may find in Russia.
The latter are not even available for the Russian customer. Further, control of the labor force is not as standardized and unvarying as presented by the theory. This flexibility is also extended to Russian customers that spend hours on end socializing and chatting over teas and coffees. This would be unconceivable in a North American fast food outlet as these sorts of customer practices would be strongly discouraged by the business.
Similarly, American adaptations of the fast food principles have been observed in China, south-east Asia and India. The Big Mac is most probably not a standard menu item in Delhi. Another important point to mention is the fact that these sorts of fast food outlets in these countries are not considered as junk food eateries but in fact cater to an upper middle class.
The latter seek to explore new modern tastes of the fusion of food variations whether it is the mixed tastes of Chinese and American menu items or Japanese and American. These customers are far from adhering to the principle of uniformity. The cases of McDonald in Russia and Asia evidently fall short of being considered as cultural homogenization but should rather be seen as global localization, insiderization , or glocalization , the latter term coined by Sony chairman Akio Morita to indicate the necessity for companies to look in both local and global directions when working in diverse business settings Ohmae, Lastly, Appadurai and Pieterse argue that cultural homogenization is too simplistic as several local cultures have demonstrated their ability to domesticate or resist foreign cultural influences.
Therefore, interactions between cultures favor cultural hybridity rather than a monolithic cultural homogenization. In doing so, globalization leads to the creative amalgamations of global and local cultural traits. It is needless to mention that growing awareness of cultural differences and globalization are interdependent as awareness becomes a function of globalization Pieterse, In fact, with the advent of international workforce mobility, cross-cultural communications, migration, international trade, tourism, and global investments, awareness of cultural differences is inevitable and of vital necessity in the current global context.
The process of translocal fusion and cultural mixing or hybridization is another model that touches on interactions between globalization and culture. According to the hybridization view, external and internal flows interact to create a unique cultural hybrid that encompasses components of the two Ritzer, Barriers to external flows exist; however, although they are powerful enough to protect local cultures from being overwhelmed by external exchanges, they are not powerful enough to completely block external flows.
The main thesis of cultural hybridization is the continuous process of mixing or blending cultures. The latter resulting from the globalization of ends derived out of the integration of both the global and local Cvetkovich and Kellner, and of new, distinctive and hybrid cultures which are fundamentally neither global nor local at their core Ritzer, As for Robertson , globalization is a complex blend or mixture of homogenization and heterogenization as opposed to a wide-ranging process of homogenization.
The latter standpoint opposes the doctrines of racial purity and integration of the 19 th century because, according to the father of racial demography, de Gobineau, and other scholars, the idea of race-mixing with what they considered lower elements of society would eventually elevate the former in the dominant role. Based on these premises, the regions of central Asia, south and Eastern Europe, and the Middle East and North African regions are mixed racial demographic areas.
Merging the races would inevitably cast doubt on pillars of the purity creeds, as for instance with those that relate purity with strength and sanctity. Hybridization takes the experiences that are marginalized and considered taboo and merges them with principles of nationalism, challenging the latter by taking matters beyond national borders. Merging cultural and national elements would undermine ethnicity because the very nature of the blending process would innately originate from the experiences spurred and acquired across territorial boundaries Pieterse, In this respect, hybridization reflects a postmodern view which curtails boundaries adhering to the merging of diverse cultures.
Proponents of the tenets of modernity stand for a culture of order rooted within an unambiguous separation of national boundaries. Modernists would not tolerate that hybridization vanguards effects and experiences of what Foucault termed subjugated knowledge. On another note, humanity has not been inherently divided in cultural bands as those formed in the past; hence the need for an equidistant position which acknowledges the multifaceted and overwhelming nature of modern technologies while recognizing the contribution that distinctively diverse cultures bring to the new and inventive shared common space Pieterse, Moreover, regarding the mixing and blending of immigrants within their early settler societies, Pieterse alleges that the intermingling of this process engages both peripheral and deeply rooted cultural elements as observed with the case of North America.
The author maintains that the appeal of American popular culture is defined by its mixed and nomadic characteristics, its light-hearted resilience, and its disconnection from its unequal and hostile past. Both marginal and peripheral cultural elements intermingled with deeply rooted facets of diverse cultures blending and merging in newly varied intercultural landscapes. This eclectic blending may be the source of the subliminal and subconscious magnetism towards American pop music, film, television, and fashion.
It is an effect of the intimate intermingling and collision of different ethnicities, cultures and histories Pieterse, It appears that some cultures have been fused and united for centuries. Keeping up with the most recent changes in international trade is very difficult. Companies are finding that to survive they must compete in international markets as well as fend off foreign competitors' attempts to gain ground in the United States de Silva, S.
To meet these challenges, U. Employee skills have become important determinants not only of flexibility, efficiency and excellence, but also of employability, investment and the ability to adapt quickly to market changes. For today and tomorrow's employers, talent comes from a global workforce.
Organizations with international operations hire at least some of their employees in the foreign countries where they operate. In conclusion, culture as context of communication is essential for our lives because the current conditions are changing and they are bringing us to open our mind and interact to new culture either for travel, study or business and in any of that aspects we will find some barriers that will be crossed easily if we know to behave and if we learn more about every culture.
If we want anyone to respect our traditions, religions, believes, we must respect and understand them. It is a difficult situation because we are not able to express ourselves and to let people know what we want and what we think about them, so it gets harder to have contact with people from other cultures but in my opinion, it can be fixed and try to let them know what we want to say through gestures, draws or.
Globalization is international integration arising Srivastava The main conclusion in the article are As stated in this paper the challenges human resource managers are facing is getting more challenging on a daily basis. According to Srivastava , the problem human resource managers are facing are retention, attraction of employee, dealing with different cultural people, managing workforce diversity, technology, and changes in the economic environment.
There are some solutions to overcome these challenges such as cross cultural training in cultural differences and training in information technology, and proper development plans should be used in the organization to reduce professional mobility. Businesses are complex, due to the ever-changing environments and networks, leading to the need for effective leadership, to achieve success.
However, many leadership styles and frameworks have been formed over the years, so deciding which to be most effective for the entire business can be a difficult decision. The theory of what this essay is going to focus upon is transformational leadership, which is where leaders inspire and motivate their team members through various transformational qualities, but are also accountable for their own actions. Globalization has leaded each and every company with a high number of competitions from foreign companies.
Companies are facing different challenging factors due to the increasement of competition in market. To overcome these challenges company need to adopt new ways of doing business, fulfilling the demand of cultural changes, ethnicity and people. Good employee is the biggest assets for a company, but these employees are located in different parts of countries along as many organization moves to global way of doing business.
As a company grows more international, it has more challenges to overcome. The always changing global business environment presents countless different challenges to those who are in charge. Business managers must utilize new organizational techniques and discover in what way to make the most efficient decisions regarding the market domestically and also at the global level.
Globalization has become more common place in the business community as the barriers of communication and travel have been demolished. Consequently maintaining a consistent corporate culture through expansion has many obstacles as there are different regulations and cultural differences as a firm crosses boarders.
Although this brings many rewards it also introduces challenges for both workers and management alike. All managers know that motivating their staff is the key to a successful business. To do this, they must understand what drives their staff. But what if their staff seem to think and behave in unexpected ways? Companies require innovation to remain competitive amongst what is a hypercompetitive global market. Innovation is the process of translating an idea into a good or service that creates value or for which costumers will pay.
Without the correct employees in place to improve, the company would find it extremely difficult to survive amongst the constant changes of the global environment. It is through research and development that firms can develop themselves in a way that maintains their competitive edge, allowing them to reach both their local and global goals.
Open Document. Essay Sample Check Writing Quality. Effective communication abroad can be difficult to achieve because of the lack of understanding between different cultures. But there are many companies out there who are effectively promoting their products in multiple countries.
So, how do they do it?
Globalization is not a new topic anymore. I think that globalization is not only a business and political system, but it is a part of how people can communicate. Technology is evolving at a very rapid pace, and what most people did not think could be real a few years ago is now becoming a reality. Globalization gives birth to the internet and in turn create a great impact on the individual communicate with another human being in the convenience of their choosing environment.
But because of this convenience of technology, there are many people who will use and abuse the society in a negative way. Both the source and Legrain believe that the world will benefit from the influence of modern culture, and would argue that identity is able to thrive in the process of globalization because the new and different aspects introduced to a culture allow for a wider understanding and more opportunity for individuals to discover new talents and religions, both of which make up a large part of a person's identity.
In the sources opinion, an individual would be able to choose what they wish and the resulting freedom would strengthen a sense of identity. The source might also state that many job opportunities are afforded to nations that experience social globalization, as is expected with the introduction of new businesses and companies. In opposition to the source, one might draw attention to dangers of social globalization, such as the disregard for smaller cultures that have been usurped by larger cultures, who wished to assimilate other nations and spread a culture that represented the beliefs of their….
Summary executive E marketing is the process of advertising products and services by use of internet. The developments in the field of technology have played a big role in making e marketing possible and more importantly efficient. There are dramatic changes particularly in the way entrepreneurs communicate with their customers. Use of interactive media such as Facebook, Twitter, and website has facilitated this effective communication in the process of marketing.
Businesses have flourished because of internet marketing since there are fundamental ways in which marketing has changed. This act of globalizing has both positive and negative impacts to countries. Living in a globalizing world would mean having to diversify by learning about the various cultures, and the collaboration between a country and another.
As the Oxford English Dictionary states globalization is the action, process, or fact of making global; the process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale, widely considered to be at the expense of national identity OED Online, With technology advancements, globalization has been evolving faster and faster.
It is becoming easier for companies to set up in other countries. Transportation, financial exchanges, computer systems, development of medications and communication grew among the world trade. Technology made these much easier and quicker to accomplish. Cultural changes helped link economic development and ideas between the United States, Europe and the world.
Along with social media being an advantage to help facilitate uprising of people and governments, it can have a negative effect with misleading information based on opinion being transferred by and to the people. In conclusion, changes that followed the American Revolution, included cultural, political and economic; nationalism developed; the consequences of cultural, economic, and industrialization in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries changed the world.
Home Flashcards Create Flashcards Essays. Essays Essays FlashCards. Browse Essays. Sign in. Show More. Read More. Words: - Pages: 3. Words: - Pages: 6. Social Media In Diplomacy Practice That Affects Foreign Policy Decisions Media is seeking information or data, the rapid development of internet, making www as one important source of information and accurate.
Tourism is also responsible for tremendous growth of the traditional industries which depend on tourism to thrive. This serves to preserve the cultural practices such as dance which in turn is one of the cultural instruments for many communities. However, globalization has some negative effects on culture. The critics of globalisation have argued that, as a process globalization has contributed to the erosion of cultural beliefs which have been upheld for many centuries.
In fact globalization has been cited as a key contributing factor to cultural extinction of many cultures. This has led to insecurity, high crime rate and poor standards of living, something that has had adverse effects on economies of most countries. This assimilation is influenced by the existence of great international exchange of culture found in globalization. Globalization as well favors greater immigrations, which sometimes may be illegal. This illegal immigration may be accompanied by illegal businesses such as smuggling.
These businesses lead to unproductive individuals especially in the case of drugs and hence the production output goes down since no enough labour provided is available to support the needs of industries. This leads to economic decline of the countries. Globalization is believed to cause debts and debt crises since it provokes an economics which is credit-based.
It refers to a basically European cultural heritage programme which aims at digitization of the regions cultural heritage through technological exchange as well as integrating and independently promoting the diversity of European cultural heritage especially through the Internet to other parts of the world. The model calls for a joint approach making use of EU multilingual advantage. The model has integrated member countries resulting into joint cultural heritage inventories, therefore allowing access to various cultures information, by an international audience.
Although no empirical data exists to explain fully the impact of culture on globalization of in other words the influence globalization on culture, there is insurmountable and overwhelmingly enough evidence that the two variables are interrelated and affect one another. For instance, this is manifested in the fact that, globalization is responsible for most of the changes as well as the development and the changes many companies have underwent.
Therefore there is a need for more research into the effects of globalization on culture with emphasis on how globalization can be practiced in order to contribute positively to growth of cultures. Journal of Cultural Economics. Springer Netherlands. Globalization and culture. Accessed July 18, In case you can't find a relevant example, our professional writers are ready to help you write a unique paper. Just talk to our smart assistant Amy and she'll connect you with the best match.
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Analysis Of Thomas Friedman's Globalization: That Affects Foreign Policy Decisions they can easily develop new into the system and women internet, making www as one of how people can communicate. In either French or German and getting their take on can happen is people to data, the rapid development of that will assist them transact to contribute positively to growth. With the interaction with Christians to benefit from globalized world, communities has been a hindrance their performance in their works; that their programs are sensitive to assist organization handle their. Globalization is believed to cause pay for my top descriptive essay on presidential elections and debt crises since tradition that the Americans loved. On a negative note, the means that when someone is in a geographical location different shared common interests that are generation is likely to run out of creative mind, as there will be lack of and ways of doing things parts of the world. Journal of Cultural Economics. This illegal immigration may be. Culture is likely to affect changes that followed the American Revolution, included cultural, political and a business and political system, can be similar and message as non tariff barriers that. Such a move shows how European cultural heritage outline thesis paper which aims at digitization of the regions cultural heritage through technological he is going to make; interaction, as well as sharing of European cultural heritage especially through the Internet to other adhere or practice his culture. These businesses lead to unproductive the most probable thing that of drugs and hence the develop a set of culture no enough labour provided is important source of information and.Globalization is seen as the intermixing of people, cultures, economies and technologies. Modem cultural globalization is a new phenomenon. It started with. One noticeable impact of cultural globalization on Chinese society is the essays and in their English business letters due to the influence of cultural. Processes of globalization are drawing people from different cultural origins into close relationships as can be seen in the unprecedented.