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Culture discrimination essay

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Young people working against antisemitism Movement against Intolerance Spain High School students repainted parts of Picasso's "Guernica" and reassembled them on a big wall in a public action to show that the fatal realities of the past are present here and now. During this process the symbols used in the painting and its relation to the Holocaust and the "Kristallnacht Pogrom" were explained to the audience. Holocaust Centre and Foundation Russia : International contests "Holocaust lessons — a way to Tolerance" Since this centre has run memorial programmes and international educational activities about tolerance and the Holocaust, including an annual contest for students and teachers from Russia, other European and CIS countries, Israel and the USA.

In their update on antisemitism in the EU, the Agency noted that "most Member States do not have official or even unofficial data and statistics on antisemitic incidents". The Agency has recognised the importance of Holocaust education as a means of addressing antisemitism, and over the years has initiated and participated in several joint projects in this area. The name Roma or Romani is a collective title for a very diverse ethnic group of people who self-identify as members of various sub-groups based for example on current or past geographical location, dialect, and occupation.

There are approximately 10 million Roma in Europe. A few groups live as travellers with no permanent home, but the majority is now living under sedentary conditions: there are urbanised Roma groups as well as many living in more or less segregated neighbourhoods or sections of smaller towns or villages. Roma are present in virtually all European countries.

Antigypsyism can be defined as a specific form of racism, an ideology of racial superiority, a form of dehumanisation and of institutionalised rac-ism applied against Roma people. Discrimination against Roma is deep rooted and a common reality all over Europe. As the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights pointed out, there are alarming trends throughout Europe, strongly resembling Nazi ideology and reasoning in relation to Roma, such as fears for safety and public health. Rhetoric criminalising the whole Roma population is also very common throughout the member states.

In many countries, Roma have been victims of violent racist groups in Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and so on , resulting in murders. Roma were caught in the crossfire of the armed conflicts in former Yugoslavia; Roma neighbourhoods and villages are often segregated and isolated. They are denied many basic rights such as education or health, or have limited access to them.

Question: What is the estimated proportion of Roma in the population of your country? Deportations of Romanian and Bulgarian Roma in In , the French government announced a crackdown on illegal camps of Roma who had recently migrated to France, and sent several thousand of their inhabitants back to Romania and Bulgaria, claiming that Roma settlements are major sources of crime and a public nuisance.

The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination sharply criticised France's crackdown and said that racism and xenophobia were undergoing a "significant resurgence". Porrajmos refers to the genocide of European Roma perpetrated by the Nazis and their allies between and Question: What are the typical ways of presenting Roma in the news in your country? A greater awareness and concern about the Roma is slowly emerging.

The Decade of Roma Inclusion — stands as an unprecedented political commitment by European governments to improve the socio-economic status and social inclusion of Roma. The international campaign Typical Roma? Effects on young people [of Romaphobia] include passivity, frustration, marginalisation, as well as mutual stereotyping and fear to interact with others due to the segregation and the wrong perceptions of the "others" and the lack of possibilities to interact.

The Council of Europe began working against the discrimination of Roma in by adopting the first official text on the "situation of Gypsies and other Travellers in Europe". In , the Council of Europe launched the Roma campaign Dosta! In the Strasbourg Declaration on Roma was adopted at a High Level Meeting; in the declaration the member states agreed on prioritising action for non-discrimination and social inclusion of Roma, including the active participation of Roma. In the youth sector of the Council of Europe, together with European Roma networks and organisations, initiated a Roma Youth Action Plan in order to improve the participation of Roma youth in European policies on Roma and youth, and to counter effects of discrimination on young Roma.

ECRI also pays attention to the situation of Roma in Europe; its General Recommendation 13 on Combating Antigypsyism and Discrimination against Roma stresses that antigypsyism is an "especially persistent, violent, recurrent and commonplace form of racism" and urges governments to combat antigypsyism in the fields of education, employment, housing and health and combat racist violence and crimes against Roma. The European Union is also increasingly acknowledging the need to counteract the effects of discrimination against Roma in its member states.

In April , the European Commission issued "An EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to " 21 , which stated that "In spite of some progress achieved both in the Member States and at EU level over the past years, little has changed in the day-to-day situation of most of the Roma". Freedom of religion and religious tolerance are basic values present in every European country, yet acts of discrimination based on religion have not yet disappeared.

Religious intolerance is often linked with racism and xenophobia — particularly with Antisemitism and Islamophobia. Whereas in the past Europe was characterised by conflicts between, and discrimination of Protestant or Catholic Christians, Roman and Eastern Orthodox or "official" churches and dissenting groups, today the political differences among Christian denominations have become far less important.

At the same time many religious communities in minority positions continue to thrive across Europe, including Baha'is, Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Jews, Muslims and Rastafarians. This growing religious diversity is often ignored, as well as those millions of Europeans who are not religious. More detailed information about discrimination based on religion can be found in the section on Religion and Belief. Religious intolerance and discrimination are often linked with racism and xenophobia and, therefore, tend to involve multiple discrimination.

Question: What minority religions exist in your country? Gender-related discrimination includes the discrimination of women as opposed to men this form is also called sexism or sex discrimination and that of transgender or transsexual people, whose gender identity is inconsistent or not culturally associated with their assigned sex.

Discrimination based on sexual orientation affects homosexual and bisexual people. As equality between women and men is discussed in detail in the section on Gender, here we only address the other forms of gender- or sex-related discrimination. Homophobia is often defined as "an irrational fear of and aversion to homosexuality and of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT 22 people, based on prejudice, similar to racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and sexism" 23 , as well as people who are perceived as being LGBT.

If directed against transgender people, it is called "transphobia". Various totalitarian regimes of the 20th century made homophobia a part of their political ideology, such as Nazism in Germany, Stalinism in the Soviet Union or Fascism in Spain. Democratic regimes in Europe have, nonetheless, justified homophobic legislation, including pathologisation and criminalisation of homosexuality, and, with it, structural discrimination of LGBT people for a long time.

Today, discrimination against LGBT people still occurs in all societies in Europe in spite of the fact that many states have adopted anti-discrimination legislation. Many LGBT people cannot fully enjoy their universal human rights, run the risk of becoming victims of hate crime and may not receive protection when attacked in the street by fellow citizens. When I was in the military, they gave me a medal for killing two men and a discharge for loving one.

Epitaph on the grave of Leonard Matlovich, gay and war veteran. In many parts of the world, LGBT people are subjected to different forms of violence that range from verbal attacks to being murdered. In many countries in the world, the practice of homosexuality is still a crime and in some of them it is punishable by a prison sentence or the death penalty LGBT people are often denied their human rights, for example the right to work, as they get fired or are discriminated against by employers because of their sexual orientation or gender identity.

The right to safety and security of a person is another which is very often violated when young people are bullied at school or harassed in the work place. Lesbian and gay couples in many countries of Europe feel discriminated in such areas as the right to marry, to constitute a family or to adopt children.

The European Court of Human Rights has often had a pioneering role in sanctioning homophobia. In a series of cases the court found that discrimination in the criminal law regarding consenting relations between adults in private was contrary to the right to respect for private life in Article 8 of the ECHR Dudgeon v.

UK, , Norris v. Ireland, , Modinos v. Cyprus, The Court was in fact the first international body to find that sexual orientation criminal laws violate human rights and has had the longest and largest jurisprudence in addressing sexual orientation issues. There have also been several cases related to single-parent adoption.

In , the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights published his report on discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity. The report welcomed the advances made in the field of LGBT rights in most member states, stating that "the pathologisation and criminalisation of homosexuality in Europe clearly belong to the past".

At the same time the report noted that serious concerns remain in many areas of human rights of LGBT persons, and this is especially true of the rights of transgender persons. This was announced as the first-ever structure of its kind in an international intergovernmental institution and signals the importance of LGBT issues within the framework of human rights in Europe. Education, both formal and non-formal, play a central role in reducing and eradicating prejudice against LGBT people.

It is only through education that prejudices can be addressed and challenged. The programmes of the European Youth Centres and of the European Youth Foundation regularly feature human rights education and training activities for multipliers and activists against homophobia. Gender Matters In the Council of Europe's youth sector published Gender Matters, a manual to assist educators and youth leaders work on issues of gender and gender-based violence with young people.

There are several approaches to anti-discrimination and anti-racist activities including:. Educators recognise the need to develop in every person a tolerant, non-discriminatory attitude and create a learning environment that acknowledges and benefits from diversity instead of ignoring or excluding it. As part of this development, those who work with children or youth, as well as children and young people themselves, should become aware of their own and others' discriminatory behaviours.

For instance, human rights educational activities can help participants to develop awareness and empathy on the one hand, and resilience and assertiveness on the other hand so that people can avoid, prevent or stand up against discrimination.

Intercultural learning is the process of learning about diversity and has been a central approach in European youth work. In the youth field of the Council of Europe, intercultural learning is presented as "a process of social education aimed at promoting a positive relationship between people and groups from different cultural backgrounds" 27 and promotes mutual respect and solidarity. One of the primary tools of fighting discrimination within the UN system is the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which commits the signatory states to the elimination of racial discrimination.

The Convention includes an individual complaints' mechanism and is monitored by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination CERD , a body of independent experts. All states parties are obliged to submit regular reports to the Committee, which in turn addresses its concerns and recommendations to the state party in the form of "concluding observations".

The Committee has three other mechanisms for its monitoring functions: the early-warning procedure, the examination of inter-state complaints and the examination of individual complaints. Other conventions of the UN address discrimination against specific groups, such as the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women or the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. OSCE is a regional security organisation with 56 member states from three continents including all the Council of Europe member states.

The OSCE also participates in combating all forms of racism, xenophobia and discrimination, including antisemitism, and discrimination against Christians and Muslims. The OSCE has a High Commissioner on National Minorities whose mandate includes identifying and seeking the early resolution of tensions involving national minority issues. We … acknowledge that slavery and the slave trade are a crime against humanity … and are among the major sources and manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

From the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action According to Article The EU has several anti-discrimination Directives. The Racial Equality Directive ensures equal treatment between people, irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. The Employment Equality Framework Directive prohibits discrimination in the workplace on grounds of disability, sexual orientation, religion or belief, and age.

The equality of men and women are provided for in two Directives, one in matters of employment and occupation the other in the access to and supply of goods and services The EU legislation also requires that each member state has a designated national equality body which can be contacted for advice and support.

Questions around the denial of asylum to refugees, deaths of many migrants on the EU borders, Islamophobia, and the deportation of Roma continue to divide the European Union members and tarnish its record of anti-discrimination efforts. A threat to human rights also comes from political parties which in power pass de facto discriminative legislation. These problems can be remedied only by a comprehensive policy, including youth policy in the sphere of non-discrimination, combating racism and intolerance.

Combating racism and intolerance was at the heart of the creation of the Council of Europe in , and remains one of its priorities today. In addition to the European Convention of Human Rights and other conventions, the Council has set up specific instruments addressing racism, discrimination and intolerance.

In , the ECRI was created as an independent human rights body to monitor the situation with regard to racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance in each member state, and to make specific recommendations to their governments and general recommendations addressed to all member states.

The Framework Convention on the Protection of National Minorities recognises that "[the]protection of national minorities and of the rights and freedoms of persons belonging to those minorities forms an integral part of the international protection of human rights" Article 1. State parties to the convention are committed to guarantee to national minorities the right of equality before the law as well as in all areas of economic, social, political and cultural life; ensuring their right to freedom of peaceful assembly, association, expression, thought, conscience and religion; and enabling national minority members to maintain, develop and preserve their culture.

It also prohibits forced assimilation. Segregation of Roma children the Czech Republic condemned by the ECHR 31 "The applicants were schoolchildren of Roma origin who were placed in "special schools" intended for pupils with learning disabilities. They submitted that they had been treated differently in the education sphere to children who were not of Roma origin in that, by being placed in special schools without justification, they received a substantially inferior education to that provided in ordinary primary schools, with the result that they were denied access to secondary education other than in vocational training centres.

Question: Which public authorities have the responsibility to combat discrimination in your country? European youth policies have traditionally included a strong dimension of intercultural learning and combating racism and prejudice.

Agenda , the main youth policy document of the Council of Europe, puts a special emphasis on "preventing and counteracting all forms of racism and discrimination on any ground" and recognises intercultural learning as a non-formal educational method "particularly relevant for promoting intercultural dialogue and combating racism and intolerance" One of major actions of youth work and youth policy against discrimination have been the European youth campaigns All Different — All Equal, which mobilised young people against racism, antisemitism, xenophobia and intolerance and for diversity, human rights and participation.

Thousands of young people took part in the various activities of the campaign throughout Europe. The White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue "Living Together as Equals in Dignity" was adopted by the Council of Europe in and provides guidelines and analytical and methodological tools for the promotion of intercultural dialogue by policymakers and practitioners.

It promotes intercultural approaches for managing cultural diversity, based on human dignity and embracing "our common humanity and common destiny". Despite the wide spectrum of existing instruments and approaches to combat racism, xenophobia and discrimination, hostility against foreigners, violation of the rights of minorities, high levels of aggressive nationalism and banal forms of discrimination are still a daily reality in most societies across Europe.

That is why it is so important today to be active and creative in promoting diversity, equality, non-discrimination and human rights. Campaign background information. Racism, antisemitism, xenophobia, and intolerance and their impact on young people in Europe" symposium report , 19 Learn more at www.

Download Compass. Discrimination and intolerance What are discrimination and intolerance? Since the beginning of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer LGBTQ community, it has been one of the most discriminated against groups in the world as they are denied the basic rights that most people get to enjoy. Today, it is still legal to discriminate someone based on their sexual orientation or gender identity […]. Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination are often interpreted similarly, but are separate issues.

Stereotypes are considered as the most cognitive factor and frequently occur without much thought behind the mindset, whereas prejudice is an affective combination of stereotyping and discrimination which leads to hurtful responses. In perspective, stereotypes mirror expectations and opinions about the features of […]. The world is full of many different forms of discrimination.

You see people judged based on their religion, race, gender, physical appearance, and so much more. Women are more often than not treated differently than men. This shows significant disadvantages for women in the workplace.

Women get treated as less than men in most job […]. However, the term is sometimes broadened to include prejudice and discrimination against all genders. Masequesmay, Sexism is an issue that affects women and girls around the world. Nevertheless, some individuals believe that sexism is no longer an issue because women in […].

In the novel of mice and men, john steinbeck tells the story of two men who travels together during the great depression. Plan International Gender inequality is an issue for all of […]. According to a survey by the ministry of education. There has been clear unethical behavior in the way the school scores entrance exams. The school has been manipulating the test scores of female applicants for years.

It reduced the scores of female applicants by 20 percent. This is obviously extremely unfair to women. Many universities […]. The gay community has faced many accounts of discrimination and hardship to express their sexuality due to societies judgements. In history gay members of communities there were many slang terms that referenced to the meaning of a gay individual. In the article, the writer also showed us how competitive […].

Empowering women in the workplace should be a priority to all companies and […]. Discrimination of races is something that is occuring in our society everyday. It still exists today because it started so long ago and once certain races had the hierarchy, some refuse to let go of the idea that they have more power just because they look a certain way and they choose to discriminate the […].

Age diversity is defined as the ability of an organization to accept people from […]. Uniformity and exception from segregation are basic human rights that have a place with all individuals, paying little mind to sexual direction, sex character or the fact that they are intersex. However, a large part of society still rejects people simply based on sexual preference, heedless of this and other actions against such behavior.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex LGBTI individuals in Australia still experience separation and provocation in numerous areas of regular day to day existence; at work and study, at various administrations and verifying and acknowledging their sexuality in official records and documents. Australia sanctioned the same-sex marriage act on 9 December States and regions started allowing household organization advantages and relationship acknowledgment to same-sex couples from onwards, with government law perceiving since same-sex couples as accepted connections.

Same-sex connections might be perceived by states or domains in different ways aside from marriage, including through common associations, residential organizations, enlisted connections or potentially as unregistered true connections. There have been numerous protests and public acts of discrimination against LGBT people since and before however, with various schools in Australia still observing the right to expel children based on sexuality, and a number of protests during the period of the postal vote for same-sex marriage.

Australia is perceived as a standout amongst the most gay-accommodating nations on the planet, with assessment surveys and the Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey showing across the board well-known help for same-sex marriage. Although, with its long history of LGBT activism and yearly Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras celebration, Sydney has been named a standout amongst the most gay-accommodating urban communities in Australia, and the world all in all.

There was a recent UN inquiry into the experiences of LGBT people in day to day life, in which one man responded with the experiences of his two daughters, one being in a same-sex relationship, and one in an opposite-sex relationship.

Which when we got there, was one of the first questions asked. My other daughter simply has to be there with her [male] partner, and no further questions are required. Before same-sex marriage gave the programmed legitimate assurances that it was legal for wedded couples to acquire resources and benefits from the state, same-sex couples needed to take explicit lawful activities.

Same-sex and true couples who isolated themselves additionally did not have similar property rights as wedded couples under government law, and were required to utilize progressively costly State Courts, instead of the Family Court, to determine debates. The arrangement to give comparable rights to LGBT people had been up for talk since , and all states inevitably concurred, however, the change was blocked on the grounds that the Howard Government demanded inequality between same-sex and opposite sex couples.

This change was not part of the fairness measures guaranteed by the Government, however, originated from the understanding between the states and domains that the past Howard Government did not satisfy. Eventually, support for the bill grew and it was passed on November Expectations for everyday comforts and defensive laws for LGBT people and groups have improved significantly throughout the years, however, LGBT people are still not treated equally and are not given the same benefits and protections that are given to others.

It is important that moving into the future, all individuals should have equal rights and equal opportunities in this nation. Essay examples. Essay topics. What is Discrimination? Discrimination in Workplace Discrimination in Workplace Discrimination in workplace is when an employee experiences harsh or unfair because of his or her race, skin color, National origin, gender, disability, religion, or age. No Society has been Protected from Discrimination No Society has been Protected from Discrimination Throughout the ages, records show that there is no society has been protected from discrimination.

Religious Discrimination Throughout Cultures and the Workplace Religious Discrimination Throughout Cultures and the Workplace Religious discrimination refers to the treating of an individual unfairly because of his or her religious beliefs Kerner. Gender Discrimination and Social Identity Gender Discrimination and Social Identity Abstract This paper demonstrates how discrimination is still a major problem in our society by referencing a recent news article about this topic, exploring the realistic conflict theory, and examining the social setting within the article.

Racist and Ethnic Discrimination Racist and Ethnic Discrimination Abstract I have chosen these two author it gave me the different opinion how they describe about racial and ethnic discrimination. Fight against Discrimination Fight against Discrimination Discrimination is the treatment or making preference against or in favor of a person, on the grounds of category, color, group or race.

Gender Discrimination in the Workplace Gender Discrimination in the Workplace One of the greatest disputes in the United States today involves gender discrimination in the workplace. Institutional Violence and Discrimination of Transgender Institutional Violence and Discrimination of Transgender Transgender individuals continue to experience institutional violence and discrimination.

Discrimination — in all its possible forms and expressions — is one of the most common forms of human rights violations and abuse.

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Work essay samples The EU has several anti-discrimination Directives. In many parts of the world, LGBT people are subjected to different forms of violence that range from verbal attacks to being murdered. This growing religious diversity is often ignored, as well as those millions of Europeans who are not religious. Though the similarities between the two may confused individuals, there happens to be a difference between colorism and racism. In some cases a preferential or positive treatment of people belonging to certain groups may be applied as an attempt to alleviate or redress professional curriculum vitae editing sites ca harms caused by structural discriminations. Although, with datenbank dissertationen deutschland long history of LGBT activism and yearly Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras celebration, Sydney has been named a standout amongst the most gay-accommodating urban communities in Australia, and the world all in all. Primanit, Arientha.

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The world is full of many different forms of discrimination. You see people judged based on their religion, race, gender, physical appearance, and so much more. Women are more often than not treated differently than men. This shows significant disadvantages for women in the workplace. Women get treated as less than men in most job […]. However, the term is sometimes broadened to include prejudice and discrimination against all genders.

Masequesmay, Sexism is an issue that affects women and girls around the world. Nevertheless, some individuals believe that sexism is no longer an issue because women in […]. In the novel of mice and men, john steinbeck tells the story of two men who travels together during the great depression. Plan International Gender inequality is an issue for all of […]. According to a survey by the ministry of education. There has been clear unethical behavior in the way the school scores entrance exams.

The school has been manipulating the test scores of female applicants for years. It reduced the scores of female applicants by 20 percent. This is obviously extremely unfair to women. Many universities […]. The gay community has faced many accounts of discrimination and hardship to express their sexuality due to societies judgements.

In history gay members of communities there were many slang terms that referenced to the meaning of a gay individual. In the article, the writer also showed us how competitive […]. Empowering women in the workplace should be a priority to all companies and […]. Discrimination of races is something that is occuring in our society everyday. It still exists today because it started so long ago and once certain races had the hierarchy, some refuse to let go of the idea that they have more power just because they look a certain way and they choose to discriminate the […].

Age diversity is defined as the ability of an organization to accept people from […]. Uniformity and exception from segregation are basic human rights that have a place with all individuals, paying little mind to sexual direction, sex character or the fact that they are intersex. However, a large part of society still rejects people simply based on sexual preference, heedless of this and other actions against such behavior.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex LGBTI individuals in Australia still experience separation and provocation in numerous areas of regular day to day existence; at work and study, at various administrations and verifying and acknowledging their sexuality in official records and documents. Australia sanctioned the same-sex marriage act on 9 December States and regions started allowing household organization advantages and relationship acknowledgment to same-sex couples from onwards, with government law perceiving since same-sex couples as accepted connections.

Same-sex connections might be perceived by states or domains in different ways aside from marriage, including through common associations, residential organizations, enlisted connections or potentially as unregistered true connections. There have been numerous protests and public acts of discrimination against LGBT people since and before however, with various schools in Australia still observing the right to expel children based on sexuality, and a number of protests during the period of the postal vote for same-sex marriage.

Australia is perceived as a standout amongst the most gay-accommodating nations on the planet, with assessment surveys and the Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey showing across the board well-known help for same-sex marriage. Although, with its long history of LGBT activism and yearly Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras celebration, Sydney has been named a standout amongst the most gay-accommodating urban communities in Australia, and the world all in all. There was a recent UN inquiry into the experiences of LGBT people in day to day life, in which one man responded with the experiences of his two daughters, one being in a same-sex relationship, and one in an opposite-sex relationship.

Which when we got there, was one of the first questions asked. My other daughter simply has to be there with her [male] partner, and no further questions are required. Before same-sex marriage gave the programmed legitimate assurances that it was legal for wedded couples to acquire resources and benefits from the state, same-sex couples needed to take explicit lawful activities.

Same-sex and true couples who isolated themselves additionally did not have similar property rights as wedded couples under government law, and were required to utilize progressively costly State Courts, instead of the Family Court, to determine debates. The arrangement to give comparable rights to LGBT people had been up for talk since , and all states inevitably concurred, however, the change was blocked on the grounds that the Howard Government demanded inequality between same-sex and opposite sex couples.

This change was not part of the fairness measures guaranteed by the Government, however, originated from the understanding between the states and domains that the past Howard Government did not satisfy. Eventually, support for the bill grew and it was passed on November Expectations for everyday comforts and defensive laws for LGBT people and groups have improved significantly throughout the years, however, LGBT people are still not treated equally and are not given the same benefits and protections that are given to others.

It is important that moving into the future, all individuals should have equal rights and equal opportunities in this nation. Essay examples. Essay topics. What is Discrimination? Discrimination in Workplace Discrimination in Workplace Discrimination in workplace is when an employee experiences harsh or unfair because of his or her race, skin color, National origin, gender, disability, religion, or age.

No Society has been Protected from Discrimination No Society has been Protected from Discrimination Throughout the ages, records show that there is no society has been protected from discrimination. Religious Discrimination Throughout Cultures and the Workplace Religious Discrimination Throughout Cultures and the Workplace Religious discrimination refers to the treating of an individual unfairly because of his or her religious beliefs Kerner. Gender Discrimination and Social Identity Gender Discrimination and Social Identity Abstract This paper demonstrates how discrimination is still a major problem in our society by referencing a recent news article about this topic, exploring the realistic conflict theory, and examining the social setting within the article.

Racist and Ethnic Discrimination Racist and Ethnic Discrimination Abstract I have chosen these two author it gave me the different opinion how they describe about racial and ethnic discrimination. Fight against Discrimination Fight against Discrimination Discrimination is the treatment or making preference against or in favor of a person, on the grounds of category, color, group or race. Gender Discrimination in the Workplace Gender Discrimination in the Workplace One of the greatest disputes in the United States today involves gender discrimination in the workplace.

Institutional Violence and Discrimination of Transgender Institutional Violence and Discrimination of Transgender Transgender individuals continue to experience institutional violence and discrimination. Development of Discrimination in Workplace Development of Discrimination in Workplace Discrimination happens everyday in the world.

Main Causes of Discrimination Main Causes of Discrimination To the extent verifiable records appear, no general public or country has been insusceptible to discrimination, either as a victim or victimizer. Racial Discrimination Within the Workplace Racial Discrimination Within the Workplace Racial Discrimination Within the Workplace Racial discrimination has played a big part in the United States history without a doubt however, there is still an argument on whether or not racial discrimination still exist in the U.

Racial Discrimination in Businesses Racial Discrimination in Businesses Racism has been an issue for an extended period of time. Steroetypes, Prejudice and Discrimination of other People Steroetypes, Prejudice and Discrimination of other People Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination are often interpreted similarly, but are separate issues.

Some prejudices may transform into ideologies and feed hatred. One such ideology is racism. Racism involves discriminatory or abusive behaviour towards people because of their imagined "inferiority". There has been wide-spread belief that there are human races within the human species, distinguishable on the basis of physical differences. Scientific research shows, however, that "human populations are not unambiguous, clearly demarcated, biologically distinct groups" 4 , and that race is an imagined entity or social construct.

All humans belong to the same species and, therefore, it makes no sense to talk of "races". The impact of racist ideologies has been devastating to humanity; it has justified slavery, colonialism, apartheid, forced sterilisations and annihilations of peoples. It has been the basis of the Nazi ideologies and of the programmes to exterminate Jews and other "inferior peoples".

Unfortunately, racism continues to be present in contemporary European societies and politics. Although race is no longer accepted as a biological category and only few people believe now in "superior races" with an inherent right to exercise power over those considered "inferior", the impact of racism lingers on and takes on different forms, such as cultural racism or ethnocentrism, the belief that some cultures, usually their own, are superior or that other cultures, traditions, customs and histories are incompatible with theirs.

International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 21 March commemorates the Sharpeville massacre in , when the police opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration against the apartheid laws in Sharpeville, South Africa. UNITED for Intercultural Action, a European network against nationalism, racism, fascism and in support of migrants and refugees, co-ordinates a European-wide action week around this date to promote tolerance and equal rights, and to celebrate diversity in Europe.

Discrimination, xenophobia and racism are widespread in many parts of the world: there are around million Dalits Untouchables in India suffering from the caste system. In the USA, race is a key factor in de-termining who is sentenced to death. Hospitals in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary have practised involuntary sterilisation of Roma women into the 21st century. The widespread practices of deportation and unequal treatment of migrants, as well as the structural discrimination against certain ethnic minorities such as Roma by many governments, nourishes xenophobia and latent racist feelings.

Hate-motivated crimes that are supported by racist ideology are regularly in the news in many of the Council of Europe member states. Question: Can you point out any recent cases of racist violence in your country? Antisemitism can be defined as "hostility towards Jews as a religious or minority group often accompanied by social, economic, and political discrimination" 9.

Antisemitism has been widespread in European history up to the present. By the end of the 19th century, Jewish communities in Russia had regularly became victims of pogroms, which were organised systematic discriminatory acts of violence against Jewish communities by the local population, often with the passive consent or active participation of law enforcement, encouraged by the antisemitic policies of governments.

Attacks on Jewish communities were also common in other European countries, including among others France and Austria. The rise of Fascism in the first part of the 20th century brought further hardship for many Jews in Europe, as antisemitism became part of the racist ideologies in power. This is true for Fascist regimes and parties that collaborated directly or indirectly with the German Nazi regime during the Holocaust, but it had also an influence in other societies and systems that were influenced by racist ideologies.

During the Holocaust, perpetrated by Nazi Germany and its allies in the Second World War, known also as the Shoah a Hebrew word meaning desolation , an estimated 6 million Jews were systematically exterminated for no other reason than that they were Jews. With the success of the Bolshevik Revolution, pogroms ceased in the Soviet Union but antisemitism continued in different forms, including forced displacements, confiscation of property and show trials.

Under communist regimes, antisemitism was often also disguised under official "anti-Zionist" policies. Racism has gained a new respect as a commonsense solution to pressing political problems. Of course we don't call it racism. We call it anti-terrorism or immigration policy. Alana Lentin 8. Today, antisemitism remains widespread in Europe, even if in some cases it is harder for the public to identify or to admit.

In recent years, Jewish cemeteries have been desecrated, Jews are regular targets of hate speech and they are sometimes physically attacked. Research regularly indicates ongoing high levels of antisemitism among mainstream European societies, accompanied by sporadic rises. As the European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance ECRI pointed out, it is an alarming trend in Europe, that despite all efforts antisemitism "continues to be promoted, openly or in a coded manner, by certain political parties and leaders, including not only extremist parties, but also certain mainstream parties" 10 , and in many cases there is tolerance or even acceptance of these agendas by certain segments of the population.

Young people working against antisemitism Movement against Intolerance Spain High School students repainted parts of Picasso's "Guernica" and reassembled them on a big wall in a public action to show that the fatal realities of the past are present here and now. During this process the symbols used in the painting and its relation to the Holocaust and the "Kristallnacht Pogrom" were explained to the audience.

Holocaust Centre and Foundation Russia : International contests "Holocaust lessons — a way to Tolerance" Since this centre has run memorial programmes and international educational activities about tolerance and the Holocaust, including an annual contest for students and teachers from Russia, other European and CIS countries, Israel and the USA. In their update on antisemitism in the EU, the Agency noted that "most Member States do not have official or even unofficial data and statistics on antisemitic incidents".

The Agency has recognised the importance of Holocaust education as a means of addressing antisemitism, and over the years has initiated and participated in several joint projects in this area. The name Roma or Romani is a collective title for a very diverse ethnic group of people who self-identify as members of various sub-groups based for example on current or past geographical location, dialect, and occupation. There are approximately 10 million Roma in Europe.

A few groups live as travellers with no permanent home, but the majority is now living under sedentary conditions: there are urbanised Roma groups as well as many living in more or less segregated neighbourhoods or sections of smaller towns or villages. Roma are present in virtually all European countries. Antigypsyism can be defined as a specific form of racism, an ideology of racial superiority, a form of dehumanisation and of institutionalised rac-ism applied against Roma people.

Discrimination against Roma is deep rooted and a common reality all over Europe. As the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights pointed out, there are alarming trends throughout Europe, strongly resembling Nazi ideology and reasoning in relation to Roma, such as fears for safety and public health.

Rhetoric criminalising the whole Roma population is also very common throughout the member states. In many countries, Roma have been victims of violent racist groups in Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and so on , resulting in murders. Roma were caught in the crossfire of the armed conflicts in former Yugoslavia; Roma neighbourhoods and villages are often segregated and isolated.

They are denied many basic rights such as education or health, or have limited access to them. Question: What is the estimated proportion of Roma in the population of your country? Deportations of Romanian and Bulgarian Roma in In , the French government announced a crackdown on illegal camps of Roma who had recently migrated to France, and sent several thousand of their inhabitants back to Romania and Bulgaria, claiming that Roma settlements are major sources of crime and a public nuisance.

The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination sharply criticised France's crackdown and said that racism and xenophobia were undergoing a "significant resurgence". Porrajmos refers to the genocide of European Roma perpetrated by the Nazis and their allies between and Question: What are the typical ways of presenting Roma in the news in your country?

A greater awareness and concern about the Roma is slowly emerging. The Decade of Roma Inclusion — stands as an unprecedented political commitment by European governments to improve the socio-economic status and social inclusion of Roma. The international campaign Typical Roma? Effects on young people [of Romaphobia] include passivity, frustration, marginalisation, as well as mutual stereotyping and fear to interact with others due to the segregation and the wrong perceptions of the "others" and the lack of possibilities to interact.

The Council of Europe began working against the discrimination of Roma in by adopting the first official text on the "situation of Gypsies and other Travellers in Europe". In , the Council of Europe launched the Roma campaign Dosta!

In the Strasbourg Declaration on Roma was adopted at a High Level Meeting; in the declaration the member states agreed on prioritising action for non-discrimination and social inclusion of Roma, including the active participation of Roma. In the youth sector of the Council of Europe, together with European Roma networks and organisations, initiated a Roma Youth Action Plan in order to improve the participation of Roma youth in European policies on Roma and youth, and to counter effects of discrimination on young Roma.

ECRI also pays attention to the situation of Roma in Europe; its General Recommendation 13 on Combating Antigypsyism and Discrimination against Roma stresses that antigypsyism is an "especially persistent, violent, recurrent and commonplace form of racism" and urges governments to combat antigypsyism in the fields of education, employment, housing and health and combat racist violence and crimes against Roma.

The European Union is also increasingly acknowledging the need to counteract the effects of discrimination against Roma in its member states. In April , the European Commission issued "An EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to " 21 , which stated that "In spite of some progress achieved both in the Member States and at EU level over the past years, little has changed in the day-to-day situation of most of the Roma".

Freedom of religion and religious tolerance are basic values present in every European country, yet acts of discrimination based on religion have not yet disappeared. Religious intolerance is often linked with racism and xenophobia — particularly with Antisemitism and Islamophobia. Whereas in the past Europe was characterised by conflicts between, and discrimination of Protestant or Catholic Christians, Roman and Eastern Orthodox or "official" churches and dissenting groups, today the political differences among Christian denominations have become far less important.

At the same time many religious communities in minority positions continue to thrive across Europe, including Baha'is, Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Jews, Muslims and Rastafarians. This growing religious diversity is often ignored, as well as those millions of Europeans who are not religious. More detailed information about discrimination based on religion can be found in the section on Religion and Belief. Religious intolerance and discrimination are often linked with racism and xenophobia and, therefore, tend to involve multiple discrimination.

Question: What minority religions exist in your country? Gender-related discrimination includes the discrimination of women as opposed to men this form is also called sexism or sex discrimination and that of transgender or transsexual people, whose gender identity is inconsistent or not culturally associated with their assigned sex. Discrimination based on sexual orientation affects homosexual and bisexual people.

As equality between women and men is discussed in detail in the section on Gender, here we only address the other forms of gender- or sex-related discrimination. Homophobia is often defined as "an irrational fear of and aversion to homosexuality and of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT 22 people, based on prejudice, similar to racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and sexism" 23 , as well as people who are perceived as being LGBT.

If directed against transgender people, it is called "transphobia". Various totalitarian regimes of the 20th century made homophobia a part of their political ideology, such as Nazism in Germany, Stalinism in the Soviet Union or Fascism in Spain. Democratic regimes in Europe have, nonetheless, justified homophobic legislation, including pathologisation and criminalisation of homosexuality, and, with it, structural discrimination of LGBT people for a long time.

Today, discrimination against LGBT people still occurs in all societies in Europe in spite of the fact that many states have adopted anti-discrimination legislation. Many LGBT people cannot fully enjoy their universal human rights, run the risk of becoming victims of hate crime and may not receive protection when attacked in the street by fellow citizens. When I was in the military, they gave me a medal for killing two men and a discharge for loving one.

Epitaph on the grave of Leonard Matlovich, gay and war veteran. In many parts of the world, LGBT people are subjected to different forms of violence that range from verbal attacks to being murdered. In many countries in the world, the practice of homosexuality is still a crime and in some of them it is punishable by a prison sentence or the death penalty LGBT people are often denied their human rights, for example the right to work, as they get fired or are discriminated against by employers because of their sexual orientation or gender identity.

The right to safety and security of a person is another which is very often violated when young people are bullied at school or harassed in the work place. Lesbian and gay couples in many countries of Europe feel discriminated in such areas as the right to marry, to constitute a family or to adopt children. The European Court of Human Rights has often had a pioneering role in sanctioning homophobia.

In a series of cases the court found that discrimination in the criminal law regarding consenting relations between adults in private was contrary to the right to respect for private life in Article 8 of the ECHR Dudgeon v. UK, , Norris v. Ireland, , Modinos v. Cyprus, The Court was in fact the first international body to find that sexual orientation criminal laws violate human rights and has had the longest and largest jurisprudence in addressing sexual orientation issues.

There have also been several cases related to single-parent adoption. In , the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights published his report on discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity. The report welcomed the advances made in the field of LGBT rights in most member states, stating that "the pathologisation and criminalisation of homosexuality in Europe clearly belong to the past".

At the same time the report noted that serious concerns remain in many areas of human rights of LGBT persons, and this is especially true of the rights of transgender persons. This was announced as the first-ever structure of its kind in an international intergovernmental institution and signals the importance of LGBT issues within the framework of human rights in Europe.

Education, both formal and non-formal, play a central role in reducing and eradicating prejudice against LGBT people. It is only through education that prejudices can be addressed and challenged. The programmes of the European Youth Centres and of the European Youth Foundation regularly feature human rights education and training activities for multipliers and activists against homophobia.

Gender Matters In the Council of Europe's youth sector published Gender Matters, a manual to assist educators and youth leaders work on issues of gender and gender-based violence with young people. There are several approaches to anti-discrimination and anti-racist activities including:.

Educators recognise the need to develop in every person a tolerant, non-discriminatory attitude and create a learning environment that acknowledges and benefits from diversity instead of ignoring or excluding it.

As part of this development, those who work with children or youth, as well as children and young people themselves, should become aware of their own and others' discriminatory behaviours. For instance, human rights educational activities can help participants to develop awareness and empathy on the one hand, and resilience and assertiveness on the other hand so that people can avoid, prevent or stand up against discrimination.

Intercultural learning is the process of learning about diversity and has been a central approach in European youth work. In the youth field of the Council of Europe, intercultural learning is presented as "a process of social education aimed at promoting a positive relationship between people and groups from different cultural backgrounds" 27 and promotes mutual respect and solidarity.

One of the primary tools of fighting discrimination within the UN system is the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which commits the signatory states to the elimination of racial discrimination. The Convention includes an individual complaints' mechanism and is monitored by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination CERD , a body of independent experts. All states parties are obliged to submit regular reports to the Committee, which in turn addresses its concerns and recommendations to the state party in the form of "concluding observations".

The Committee has three other mechanisms for its monitoring functions: the early-warning procedure, the examination of inter-state complaints and the examination of individual complaints. Other conventions of the UN address discrimination against specific groups, such as the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women or the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

Discrimination essay culture literary analysis book 2

Racial/Ethnic Prejudice \u0026 Discrimination: Crash Course Sociology #35

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