Fran, A. Martin, Z. APA also clarifies what you can do when other reference elements are missing. And if you use a citation generator to make your life a little easier, these examples can ensure nothing was missed. When it comes to your APA paper, you might find that you use online articles to keep things recent and relevant to your study or topic. Learn how to format the author, date, title, and location for your website citation.
National Center for Education Statistics. Six-year persistence and attainment at first institution. Department of Education. These citations include the speakers, date, title, and location. Dell, I. Brownstone: a comprehensive system. In addition to the creator, you need the date, title, and where the video can be found. Davenport University. Creating a bibliography using APA [Video]. APA is excellent for legal writing, so knowing how to create these citations can be useful.
For a legal case citation, you need the name of the case, volume source page, and court date. MacDonald v. An annotated bibliography includes citations for any sources used for the creation of the paper along with an annotation. The annotation provides the reader with further information about your source.
See an APA annotated bibliography in action. Terminology can get confusing, especially when it comes to a reference page vs. Keep the wording clear by looking at each in turn. No one wants to lose points on their APA reference page.
Therefore, ensure you have everything perfect by following this quick and easy guide. The formatting of the page includes an optional running header, page number header, 1-inch margins on all sides, references in alphabetical order, hanging indents, and centered title "References. The way that you create references in APA format depends on the specific citation you are creating. However, in general, each citation includes the author, date, title, and location information.
Pride and prejudice. New York Press. A reference list in APA is formatted in alphabetical order. Additionally, any citations that go beyond the first line include a hanging indent. Each different citation will have a distinct format depending on if it is a book, website, journal, etc. For titles, you will ignore articles like a, an, and the. Numbers are alphabetized the way they sound.
For example: Austen, J. The way we were. Gilmore Publishing. Yes, in an APA reference list, you will include page numbers. The APA Manual doesn't specifically recommend anything regarding this, so it's not mandatory, but as long as it doesn't create any large empty spaces on the page, I would say it's a good idea as a way of keeping the presentation neat. Hi, I was reading this over and I was wondering if in APA formatting, for the reference page the accessed date of an article or web page is needed?
The 7th edition of APA style recommends including a retrieval date only for sources that are designed to change over time for example, online dictionary entries or web pages that are regularly updated. In most cases, it's not necessary to include the access date. You can learn more in our guide to dates in APA references. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes.
Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. Order the references alphabetically. Double-space all text. Apply a hanging indent of 0. What is your plagiarism score? Compare your paper with over 60 billion web pages and 30 million publications.
Periodicals Journal article Newspaper article. Books and reference works Book Bible Dictionary entry Encyclopedia entry. Online media Tweet Webpage. Is this article helpful? Raimo Streefkerk Raimo is an expert in explaining plagiarism and citing sources. He has been writing helpful articles since and is continuously improving Scribbr's Citation Generators.
Other students also liked. APA title page cover page An APA title page student version , includes the title, author's name and affiliation, course name, instructor name, and due date. APA format for academic papers and essays Easily apply APA format to your title page, abstract, body text, page header and reference page.
Download the template! Hi Elle, You can read more about what to do in case of missing information here. Hope that helps! Hi Shirley, We recently added an article covering how to list editions of the Bible on your reference page. Ron January 14, at PM I have multiple references for my paper and the list of references is more than one page long.
Dell, I. Brownstone: a comprehensive system. In addition to the creator, you need the date, title, and where the video can be found. Davenport University. Creating a bibliography using APA [Video]. APA is excellent for legal writing, so knowing how to create these citations can be useful.
For a legal case citation, you need the name of the case, volume source page, and court date. MacDonald v. An annotated bibliography includes citations for any sources used for the creation of the paper along with an annotation. The annotation provides the reader with further information about your source. See an APA annotated bibliography in action. Terminology can get confusing, especially when it comes to a reference page vs. Keep the wording clear by looking at each in turn.
No one wants to lose points on their APA reference page. Therefore, ensure you have everything perfect by following this quick and easy guide. The formatting of the page includes an optional running header, page number header, 1-inch margins on all sides, references in alphabetical order, hanging indents, and centered title "References. The way that you create references in APA format depends on the specific citation you are creating.
However, in general, each citation includes the author, date, title, and location information. Pride and prejudice. New York Press. A reference list in APA is formatted in alphabetical order. Additionally, any citations that go beyond the first line include a hanging indent. Each different citation will have a distinct format depending on if it is a book, website, journal, etc. For titles, you will ignore articles like a, an, and the.
Numbers are alphabetized the way they sound. For example: Austen, J. The way we were. Gilmore Publishing. Yes, in an APA reference list, you will include page numbers. The page numbers will start on your title page, and follow through to the APA reference page. Average rating 3. Vote count: No votes so far!
Be the first to rate this post. Santa-Karlene, S. Smith, J. How useful was this post? Click on a star to rate it! We are sorry that this post was not useful for you! According to Belafonte , Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late s. If there are two authors listed in the source entry, then the parenthetical reference must list them both:. There is also more information in the official manual in chapter 8. You might want to also check out his guide on parenthetical citing.
Would you benefit from having a tool that helps you easily generate citations that are in the text? Check out EasyBib Plus! An APA format reference page is easier to create than you probably think. We go into detail on how to create this page on our APA reference page. Here are some pointers to keep in mind when it comes to the references page in APA format:.
Try it out! Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place:. Congratulations for making it this far! Can we offer one last suggestion? We promise it will only take a minute. Copy and paste or upload your paper into our checker. If it sounds too good to be true, then head on over to our innovative tool and give it a whirl. Information on how to cite sources can be found on our APA citation page. However, this page is not associated with the association.
What are behavioral sciences? Behavioral sciences study human and animal behavior. They can include:. What are social sciences? Social sciences focus on one specific aspect of human behavior, specifically social and cultural relationships. Social sciences can include:. This citation style was created by the American Psychological Association.
Its rules and guidelines can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The information provided in the guide above follows the 6th edition of the manual. The 7th edition was published in and is the most recent version. The 7th edition of the Publication Manual is in full color and includes 12 sections compared to 8 sections in the 6th edition.
In general, this new edition differentiates between professional and student papers, includes guidance with accessibility in mind, provides new examples to follow, and has updated guidelines. New citing information. There is new guidance on citing classroom or intranet resources, and oral traditions or traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples.
Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates. American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg.
She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style. Get Started. Certain features require a modern browser to function.
Please use a different browser, like Firefox , Chrome , or Safari. Table of Contents Citation Generator. Empirical studies Empirical studies take data from observations and experiments to generate research reports. Methodological articles These articles showcase new advances, or modifications to an existing practice, in a scientific method or procedure.
Case studies Case studies present information related an individual, group, or larger set of individuals. Here are key guidelines to developing your title page: The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay, but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Center the title on the page and place it about lines from the top. The title should be bolded, in title case, and the same font size as your other page text.
Do not underline or italicize the title. Other text on the page should be plain not bolded , underlined, or italicized. All text on the title page should be double-spaced. The APA format examples paper below displays proper spacing, so go take a look! The institutional affiliation is the school the author attends or the location where the author conducted the research. Sample of an APA format title page for a student paper: Sample of title page for a professional paper:.
Here are some helpful suggestions to create a dynamic abstract: Abstracts are found on their own page, directly after the title or cover page. Professional papers only not student papers : Include the running head on the top of the page.
On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew. Use concise, brief, informative language. You only have a few sentences to share the summary of your entire document, so be direct with your wording. This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than words.
If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords : in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research.
You can also include keyword strings that you think readers will type into the search box. Use an active voice, not a passive voice. When writing with an active voice, the subject performs the action. When writing with a passive voice, the subject receives the action. Active voice: The subjects reacted to the medication.
Passive voice: There was a reaction from the subjects taking the medication. Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains. View our in-depth APA Abstract guide. Most papers follow this format: At the top of the page, add the page number in the upper right corner of all pages, including the title page.
On the next line write the title in bold font and center it. Do not underline or italicize it. Begin with the introduction and indent the first line of the paragraph. All paragraphs in the body are indented. The heading title should be in capital letters. The abstract page should be page 2. The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based. It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract.
Begin a new section with the Method and use this word as the subtitle. Bold and center this subtitle. The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted. Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected. Begin a new section with the Results.
The Results section summarizes your data. Use charts and graphs to display this data. Begin a new section with the Discussion. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results. Draw conclusions and support how your data led to these conclusions. Discuss whether or not your hypothesis was confirmed or not supported by your results. Determine the limitations of the study and next steps to improve research for future studies.
Sample body for a professional paper:. In APA format, there are five levels of headings, each with a different formatting: Level 1: This is the title of your paper The title should be centered in the middle of the page The title should be bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary called title capitalization Level 2: Place this heading against the left margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary Level 3: Place this heading against the left side margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Level 4: Indented in from the left margin Bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Level 5: Indented Bolded Italicized Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Following general formatting rules, all headings are double spaced and there are no extra lines or spaces between sections.
Here is a visual APA format template for levels of headings:. The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text. Follow them in the appropriate numerical order in which they appear in the text of your paper. Example : Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3 Only use graphics if they will supplement the material in your text. If they reinstate what you already have in your text, then it is not necessary to include a graphic.
Include enough wording in the graphic so that the reader is able to understand its meaning, even if it is isolated from the corresponding text. However, do not go overboard with adding a ton of wording in your graphic. Tables: Is there anything better than seeing a neatly organized data table? General format of a table should be: Table number Title Table Note Here are a few pointers to keep in mind: Choose to type out your data OR create a table.
Choose one or the other. If you choose to create a table, discuss it very briefly in the text. Table 1 is the first table discussed in the paper. Table 2 is the next table mentioned, and so on. This should be in bold. Add a title under the number. Create a brief, descriptive title. Capitalize the first letter for each important word. Italicize the title and place it under the table number. Formatting: Only use horizontal lines. Limit use of cell shading.
Keep the font at point size and use single or double spacing. If you use single spacing in one table, make sure all of the others use single spaces as well. Keep it consistent. All headings should be centered. In the first column called the stub , center the heading, left-align the information underneath it indent 0. Information in other columns should be centered. Note: If you need to further explain something, or include an APA format citation, place it in a note below the table.
There are 3 types: General. Information about the whole table. Information targeted for a specific column, row, or cell. Explains what certain table symbols mean. For example, asterisks, p values, etc. Figures: Figures represent information in a visual way.
This means each should include: Figure number Title Figure Note Use the same formatting tables use for the number, title, and note. Here are some pointers to keep in mind when it comes to APA format for figures: Only include a figure if it adds value to your paper. If it will truly help with understanding, include it! Either include a figure OR write it all out in the text. Do not include the same information twice. If a note is added, it should clearly explain the content of the figure.
APA format sample of a figure: Photographs: We live in a world where we have tons of photographs available at our fingertips. Create a reference for the photograph. Follow the guidelines under the table and figure sections above. Do not use color photos. It is recommended to use black and white. Using black and white ensures the reader will be able to view the image clearly.
If there are sections of the photograph that are not related to your work, it is acceptable to crop them out. If you choose to include an image of a person you know, it would be respectful if you ask their permission before automatically including their photo in your paper.
Some schools and universities post research papers online and some people prefer that their photos and information stay off the Internet. For verbs in scientific papers, the APA manual recommends using: Past tense or present perfect tense for the explantation of the procedure Past tense for the explanation of the results Present tense for the explanation of the conclusion and future implications. Do not include information about individuals or labels if it is not necessary.
First and foremost, use abbreviations sparingly. If the abbreviation is used less than three times in the paper, type it out each time. If you decide to sprinkle in abbreviations, it is not necessary to include periods between the letters. Prior to using an unfamiliar abbreviation, you must type it out in text and place the abbreviation immediately following it in parentheses.
Any usage of the abbreviation after the initial description, can be used without the description. Patients who experience STM loss while using the medication should discuss it with their doctor. If the unit of measurement stands alone, type it out. Examples APA format: 4 lbs. The weight in pounds exceeded what we previously thought. One space after most punctuation marks The manual recommends using one space after most punctuation marks, including punctuation at the end of a sentence p.
Apostrophes When writing a possessive singular noun, you should place the apostrophe before the s. Here are a few examples: custom-built year-old pp. APA format examples: 14 kilograms seven individuals 83 years old Fourth grade The golden rule for numbers has exceptions. In APA formatting, use numerals if you are: Showing numbers in a table or graph Referring to information in a table or graph Table 7 Including a unit of measurement directly after it.
Examples APA format: 8 lbs. Ninety-two percent of teachers feel as though…. Do not translate them into Arabic numerals. Additional number rules can be found in the publication manual p. The emperor of any place. Candlewick Press. Each reference is organized, or structured, differently. It all depends on the source type. A book reference is structured one way, an APA journal is structured a different way, a newspaper article is another way.
MLA works cited pages are unique in that every source type is formatted the same way. Unfortunately, this style is quite different. View our in-depth guide on APA Citations. Example: Harlem had many artists and musicians in the late s Belafonte, Example: According to Belafonte , Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late s. Start on a fresh, clean document p.
Alphabetize and double-space ALL entries. Every quote or piece of outside information included in the paper should be referenced and have an entry. Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place: Did you credit all of the information and quotes you used in the body of your paper and show a matching full reference at the end of the paper? Remember, you need both!
Need more information on how to credit other authors and sources? Check out our other guides, or use the EasyBib APA format generator to credit your sources quickly and easily. Is your title page properly formatted? You may feel tempted to make the title in a larger font size or add graphics to jazz it up a bit. Keep it professional looking and make everything 12 pt size font and double spaced. Here are recommended font sizes: pt.