how to write an introduction for a term paper

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Manicurists and pedicurists nail salon business plan work on a commission basis first and eventually decide to open their own nail salons. Running your own nail salon has the potential to be a very profitable business with low overheads. The mostly female customers can pamper themselves with affordable manicures and pedicures, even when they cannot afford expensive spa visits. The nail salon business plan should begin with the company description that establishes the brand. There are a range of salon types, with some nail salons marketing themselves as walk-in, family friendly businesses and are often located in malls. There are also upscale nail salons that are typically located in upmarket shopping centers, day spas, or luxury hotels and resorts.

How to write an introduction for a term paper cheap reflective essay writer services for university

How to write an introduction for a term paper

Make this reasoning explicit! NOTE: Delimitations refer to the initial choices made about the broader, overall design of your study and should not be confused with documenting the limitations of your study discovered after the research has been completed. Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction :.

The overarching goal of your introduction is to make your readers want to read your paper. The introduction should grab your reader's attention. Strategies for doing this can be to:. NOTE: Only choose one strategy for engaging your readers; avoid giving an impression that your paper is more flash than substance. Freedman, Leora and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Introduction.

Department of Biology. Bates College; Introductions. University of North Carolina; Introductions. Writing Center. Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University. Avoid the "Dictionary" Introduction. Giving the dictionary definition of words related to the research problem may appear appropriate because it is important to define specific words or phrases with which readers may be unfamiliar.

However, anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and a general dictionary is not a particularly authoritative source. It doesn't take into account the context of your topic and doesn't offer particularly detailed information. Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary. If you feel that you must seek out an authoritative definition, try to find one that is from subject specific dictionaries or encyclopedias [e.

These can be found by searching the Credo Reference database. Saba, Robert. The College Research Paper. Florida International University; Introductions. A common question asked at the start of any paper is, "where should I begin? It is, therefore, important to lay a foundation for understanding the historical context underpinning the research problem. However, this information should be brief and succinct and begin at a point in time that best informs the reader of study's overall importance.

For example, a study about coffee cultivation and export in West Africa as a key stimulus for local economic growth needs to describe the beginning of exporting coffee in the region and establishing why economic growth is important. You do not need to give a long historical explanation about coffee exportation in Africa.

If a research problem demands a substantial exploration of historical context, do this in the literature review section; note in the introduction as part of your "roadmap" [see below] that you covering this in the literature review. Always End with a Roadmap.

The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a description of the rest of the paper [a "roadmap"] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to expect. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.

If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. The Introduction Search this Group Search. Organizing Academic Research Papers: 4. The Introduction. The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices Definition The introduction serves the purpose of leading the reader from a general subject area to a particular field of research. Importance of a Good Introduction Think of the introduction as a mental road map that must answer for the reader these four questions: What was I studying?

Why was this topic important to investigate? The introduction serves multiple purposes. It presents the background to your study, introduces your topic and aims, and gives an overview of the paper. A good introduction will provide a solid foundation and encourage readers to continue on to the main parts of your paper—the methods, results, and discussion. In this article, we present 10 tips for writing an effective introduction. These tips apply primarily to full papers and letters reporting original research results.

Although some tips will be more suited to papers in certain fields, the points are broadly applicable. In the first paragraph, briefly describe the broad research area and then narrow down to your particular focus. This will help position your research topic within the broader field, making the work accessible to a broader audience, not just to specialists in your field. Papers rejected for "not showing the importance of the topic" or "lacking clear motivation" usually neglect this point.

Say what you want to achieve and why your reader should be interested in finding out whether you achieve it. The basic structure can be as simple as "We aim to do X, which is important because it will lead to Y. Once you've narrowed your focus to the specific topic of your study, you should thoroughly cover the most recent and most relevant literature pertaining to your study.

Your review of the literature should be complete, but not overly long— remember, you're not writing a review article. If you find that your introduction is too long or overflowing with citations, one possible solution is to cite review articles, rather than all the individual articles that have already been summarized in the review.

Consider the following sentence: "Many studies have found a significant association between X and Y []. Although references [] might provide a good overview of the topic, this sentence doesn't provide enough context or explanation for these past studies.

If all of these references are worth citing, they should be discussed in greater specificity. For example, "A significant association has been found between X and Y in men [], women [], and children []. Get featured articles and other author resources sent to you in English, Japanese, or both languages via our monthly newsletter.

For research in empirical sciences, stating a hypothesis can be an effective way of framing the research. For example, instead of stating "In this study, we show that X is related to Y by method A," you could say, "In this study, we hypothesize that X is related to Y, and we use method A to test this hypothesis. An organizational overview is more common in some fields than others. It is particularly common in technology, but less so in medicine. In the last paragraph of your introduction, consider giving a section-by-section overview of your paper if it is appropriate for your field.

For example, "In Section II, we describe our analysis methods and the datasets we used. In Section III we present the results. In Section IV, we discuss the results and compare our findings with those in the literature. In Section V, we state our conclusions and suggest possible topics for future research.

Try to avoid an overly long introduction. A good target is to words, although checking the journal's guidelines and past issues will provide the clearest guidance. One goal of the introduction is explaining why your research topic is worthy of study. One of the most common pitfalls is to simply say, "Subject X is important. For example, instead of writing "The development of new materials is important for the automotive industry," you could write, "The development of new materials is necessary for the automotive industry to produce stronger, lighter vehicles, which will improve safety and fuel economy.

In the introduction, if your paper is in a field that commonly summarizes the study's main results before starting the methods, you should avoid stating too many detailed results because these results need the development in the other sections of your paper to be properly understood.

BIBLIOGRAPHY + RESEARCH PAPER

Using infinitives. Compared to two other sections of a typical research paper, namely Methods and Results, Introduction and Discussion are more difficult to write. However, the 4-step approach described in this article should ease the task. You can write it, or at least revise it, after you have written the rest of the paper: this will make the Introduction not only easier to write but also more compelling.

To learn in more detail the guidelines to write a great Introduction section, check out this course: How to write a strong introduction for your research paper. Detailing the writing of scientific manuscripts: paragraphs. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 2 : e21—e Boxman R and Boxman E.

Communicating Science: a practical guide for engineers and physical scientists , pp. Singapore: World Scientific. Related reading:. Create a free account and access this bonus resource. Get Instant Access. You're looking to give wings to your academic career and publication journey. We like that! Why don't we give you complete access! One click sign-in with your social accounts. Sign up via email.

Subscribe to Manuscript Writing. Translate your research into a publication-worthy manuscript by understanding the nuances of academic writing. Subscribe and get curated reads that will help you write an excellent manuscript. Confirm that you would also like to sign up for free personalized email coaching for this stage. How researchers should work to write the first draft of their manuscript 4 min read.

Manuscript structure: How to convey your most important ideas through your paper 6 min read. Recommended Courses. Yateendra Joshi Sep 18, Reading time. How to write the introduction section of my manuscript? What will you learn? Difference between an abstract and an introduction Writing a good introduction for your paper or thesis Step-by-step understanding of what to include in the introduction Tips and tricks to get your introduction right.

Related Infographic. Related Video. Top tips and tricks to write an effective results section. Related Slide deck. Original research articles constitute a major portion…. Related Podcast. One of the most important components of a research…. Related Workshop. How to write a research paper in English. To further develop the relationship between Editage…. Related Article. The secret to writing the introduction and methods section of a manuscript. Read this article to understand the secrets behind….

How can I write the introduction section for my article? I am currently writing my own research paper and I'm…. If they do, to what extent as compared to rice? Get Instant Access 6. Introduction Section. Continue with Facebook. Sign in with Google. Log in with Linkedin. Log in with Twitter.

Show comments. Instead, make sure that your initial sentence relates directly to the problem, question or issue highlighted by the essay topic. Setting the parameters of the essay is important. State your position on the topic also referred to as your main argument , or contention , or thesis statement. Make sure that you are directly answering the question and the whole essay question if there is more than one part! Provide an overview of how you are approaching the essay. Whether this ability is something a person is born with, or whether it is something that a person can learn, has been the subject of considerable debate.

Kambil has outlined two categories of leadership attributes that help to frame the discussion: 'traits' mostly innate and 'skills' which can be developed through experience or training. This essay will draw on the trait theory of leadership to argue that that leaders are first born, but then must be made.

A potential leader should develop their natural traits as well as learn and practise skills which will help them to persuade, equip and inspire others to realise their vision. Read the paragraph below and see if you can identify the key features of an introduction.

This is an introduction written in response to the essay question: 'Can Rome's actions towards Carthage be described as defensive imperialism? Skip to content Skip to navigation. Plagiarism, collusion and contract cheating Putting academic integrity into practice Reference list Further resources Citing and referencing About citing and referencing What and when to cite and reference How to cite and reference Test your understanding Reference list Guide to referencing styles.

PERSONAL NARRATIVE ESSAY EXAMPLES GRADE 5

These tips apply primarily to full papers and letters reporting original research results. Although some tips will be more suited to papers in certain fields, the points are broadly applicable. In the first paragraph, briefly describe the broad research area and then narrow down to your particular focus.

This will help position your research topic within the broader field, making the work accessible to a broader audience, not just to specialists in your field. Papers rejected for "not showing the importance of the topic" or "lacking clear motivation" usually neglect this point. Say what you want to achieve and why your reader should be interested in finding out whether you achieve it. The basic structure can be as simple as "We aim to do X, which is important because it will lead to Y.

Once you've narrowed your focus to the specific topic of your study, you should thoroughly cover the most recent and most relevant literature pertaining to your study. Your review of the literature should be complete, but not overly long— remember, you're not writing a review article. If you find that your introduction is too long or overflowing with citations, one possible solution is to cite review articles, rather than all the individual articles that have already been summarized in the review.

Consider the following sentence: "Many studies have found a significant association between X and Y []. Although references [] might provide a good overview of the topic, this sentence doesn't provide enough context or explanation for these past studies. If all of these references are worth citing, they should be discussed in greater specificity. For example, "A significant association has been found between X and Y in men [], women [], and children []. Get featured articles and other author resources sent to you in English, Japanese, or both languages via our monthly newsletter.

For research in empirical sciences, stating a hypothesis can be an effective way of framing the research. For example, instead of stating "In this study, we show that X is related to Y by method A," you could say, "In this study, we hypothesize that X is related to Y, and we use method A to test this hypothesis.

An organizational overview is more common in some fields than others. It is particularly common in technology, but less so in medicine. In the last paragraph of your introduction, consider giving a section-by-section overview of your paper if it is appropriate for your field.

For example, "In Section II, we describe our analysis methods and the datasets we used. In Section III we present the results. In Section IV, we discuss the results and compare our findings with those in the literature. In Section V, we state our conclusions and suggest possible topics for future research. Try to avoid an overly long introduction. A good target is to words, although checking the journal's guidelines and past issues will provide the clearest guidance. One goal of the introduction is explaining why your research topic is worthy of study.

One of the most common pitfalls is to simply say, "Subject X is important. For example, instead of writing "The development of new materials is important for the automotive industry," you could write, "The development of new materials is necessary for the automotive industry to produce stronger, lighter vehicles, which will improve safety and fuel economy.

In the introduction, if your paper is in a field that commonly summarizes the study's main results before starting the methods, you should avoid stating too many detailed results because these results need the development in the other sections of your paper to be properly understood.

Many journals have specific requirements for the introduction in their guidelines for authors. For example, there might be a maximum word count stated or the guidelines might require specific content, such as a hypothesis statement or a summary of your main results. I would like to close with one last piece of advice: When you begin drafting a paper, the introduction should be one of the first things you plan.

It's such an important section—setting the scene for everything that follows—that many authors write the methods, results, and discussion sections in full before completing the introduction. Examples of delimitating choices would be:. Review each of these decisions. You need to not only clearly establish what you intend to accomplish, but to also include a declaration of what the study does not intend to cover.

Make this reasoning explicit! NOTE: Delimitations refer to the initial choices made about the broader, overall design of your study and should not be confused with documenting the limitations of your study discovered after the research has been completed. Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction :. The overarching goal of your introduction is to make your readers want to read your paper.

The introduction should grab your reader's attention. Strategies for doing this can be to:. NOTE: Only choose one strategy for engaging your readers; avoid giving an impression that your paper is more flash than substance. Freedman, Leora and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Introduction.

Department of Biology. Bates College; Introductions. University of North Carolina; Introductions. Writing Center. Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University. Avoid the "Dictionary" Introduction. Giving the dictionary definition of words related to the research problem may appear appropriate because it is important to define specific words or phrases with which readers may be unfamiliar.

However, anyone can look a word up in the dictionary and a general dictionary is not a particularly authoritative source. It doesn't take into account the context of your topic and doesn't offer particularly detailed information. Also, placed in the context of a particular discipline, a term may have a different meaning than what is found in a general dictionary.

If you feel that you must seek out an authoritative definition, try to find one that is from subject specific dictionaries or encyclopedias [e. These can be found by searching the Credo Reference database. Saba, Robert. The College Research Paper. Florida International University; Introductions. A common question asked at the start of any paper is, "where should I begin? It is, therefore, important to lay a foundation for understanding the historical context underpinning the research problem.

However, this information should be brief and succinct and begin at a point in time that best informs the reader of study's overall importance. For example, a study about coffee cultivation and export in West Africa as a key stimulus for local economic growth needs to describe the beginning of exporting coffee in the region and establishing why economic growth is important. You do not need to give a long historical explanation about coffee exportation in Africa.

If a research problem demands a substantial exploration of historical context, do this in the literature review section; note in the introduction as part of your "roadmap" [see below] that you covering this in the literature review. Always End with a Roadmap.

The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a description of the rest of the paper [a "roadmap"] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to expect. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.

If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. The Introduction Search this Group Search. Organizing Academic Research Papers: 4. The Introduction. The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices

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Instead of just stating a fact that the reader already knows, the improved hook here tells us about the mainstream interpretation of the book, implying that this essay will offer a different interpretation. Next, give your reader the context they need to understand your topic and argument. Depending on the subject of your essay, this might include:. The information here should be broad but clearly focused and relevant to your argument. How much space you need for background depends on your topic and the scope of your essay.

In our Braille example, we take a few sentences to introduce the topic and sketch the social context that the essay will address:. Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing. See editing example.

This is your thesis statement —a sentence or two that sums up your overall argument. This is the most important part of your introduction. Keep it concise and give your reader a clear sense of the direction your argument will take. If your argument has gone in a different direction than planned, tweak your thesis statement to match what you actually say.

You have a strong introduction - now make sure the rest of your essay is just as good. This introduction to an argumentative essay sets up the debate about the internet and education, and then clearly states the position the essay will argue for. The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful.

This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

This introduction to a short expository essay leads into the topic the invention of the printing press and states the main point the essay will explain the effect of this invention on European society. In many ways, the invention of the printing press marked the end of the Middle Ages. The medieval period in Europe is often remembered as a time of intellectual and political stagnation.

Prior to the Renaissance, the average person had very limited access to books and was unlikely to be literate. The invention of the printing press in the 15th century allowed for much less restricted circulation of information in Europe, paving the way for the Reformation.

Arguably the first science fiction novel, its plot can be read as a warning about the dangers of scientific advancement unrestrained by ethical considerations. However, far from providing a stable image of the character, Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to gradually transform our impression of Frankenstein, portraying him in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on.

Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:. The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay. To write a good hook, avoid overly broad statements or long, dense sentences. A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay. Everything else you write should relate to this key idea. The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:. Without a clear thesis, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas. The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.

Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Essay How to write an essay introduction. Give background on your topic. Present your thesis —the central point of your essay.

Essay introduction example The invention of Braille was a major turning point in the history of disability. What can proofreading do for your paper? Strategy for Writing Title. Function : An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph usually , the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence:. Whereas the Title can only make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper.

The length of your Abstract should be kept to about words maximum a typical standard length for journals. Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper i. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts.

Therefore, enough key information e. How do you know when you have enough information in your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions.

Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense. Maximum length should be words, usually in a single paragraph. Strategy : Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract, by definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper. To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the paper.

Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in the body of the paper. Quite literally, the Introduction must answer the questions, " What was I studying?

Why was it an important question? What did we know about it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? Style : Use the active voice as much as possible. Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. Structure : The structure of the Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied.

Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale. A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the question s your study addresses.

Once the scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of general information with which the Introduction should begin. Top of Page. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials. Function : In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization details follow below :. Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the experiment s ; subheadings work well for this purpose.

Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time. The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up.

In general, provide enough quantitative detail how much, how long, when, etc. You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance usually at 0. Style : The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others.

Avoid use of the first person in this section. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future. The Methods section is not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual.

Strategy for writing the Methods section. Describe the organism s used in the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected , 2 typical size weight, length, etc , 3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used.

For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date s of the study e. It is often a good idea to include a map labeled as a Figure showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area.

Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the data take, etc. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number e.

When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment. A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings.

Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc. When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures e.

You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category e. It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source vendor and catalog number for reagents used, e. Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses usually hypothesis tests were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance.

Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. Problem : The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. Problematic Example : This is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure.

It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details. The lid was then raised slightly. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand.

The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Improved Example : Same actions, but all the important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added.

Best: Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information. The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. Problematic example : In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. Tube 4's A was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment.

Improved example: Notice how the substitution in red of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context. The A of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Function : The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results , without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures.

The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text usually parenthetically or in the relevant Tables or Figures in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure. Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. Style : Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively.

The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use the past tense. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope.

Consider the following two examples:. The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages Fig. The results of the germination experiment Fig. Strategy for Writing the Results Section. Frequently asked questions FAQs. What are the "results"? Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to the question. In general, the answer is the " key result". The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ.

So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of figures and simple calculations of means and standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected. For example, suppose you asked the question, " Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of randomly selected Biology majors?

You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples mean, SD, n, range, etc and plot these numbers. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots.

Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on average, Differences, directionality, and magnitude : Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships. For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to simply report that "groups A and B were significantly different".

How are they different? How much are they different? See also below about use of the word " significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way.